05 December 2015

'Beiseina Khawvel' thlirlawkna


... some few to be read wholly, and with diligence and attention
— Francis Bacon

English Essay-te pa ‘Father of English Essay’ tia chhâl Francis Bacon (1561-1626) chuan lehkhabu hi chi hrang hrangah a thliar a; thenkhat chu tem hlek tawk chauh te, lem liam mai chi te, thial chipa paitawih chi te a awm niin a sawi a Lehkhabu thenkhat chu a eng emaw lai chauh chhiar a, chik taka chip zui chi ni lem lo te a awm a, lehkhabu thenkhat chu a zavaia chhiar mai piah lamah taima leh rilru pe taka chhiar ngai chi te a awm niin a sawi bawk. Chutianga ngaihtuahna chhungril ber seng chunga, taima tak leh chik taka chhiar ngai chi zingah chuan TS Khupchong ziah ‘Beiseina Khawvel’ (essays in Mizo literary criticism) tih lehkhabu hi chhiar hmaih chi a ni lo.

He lehkhabu phek 190-a chhahah hian thupui khal tak tak sawmpakhat lai min chaipui a, a thuhmahruai leh a ‘hla hmatheh’ (prelude) leh ‘hla hnuhnung’ (epilogue) ni kawp nen phei chuan thupui sawmpathum zet min thehsak a. ‘Fakselna’ leh ‘Thlitfimna’ (criticism) bela chhum a ni bawk a, a rum deuh ûl mai a; bazar nuho leh damdawiina damlo awmpuitute ang ‘level’ tan phei chuan lem thiam a har mai ni lovin, bar tina an tin lem loh tur chi a ni.

Hlawm khatnaah hian ‘Criticism’ chungchang leh Mizo literary criticism chungchang min thlirpui a. Criticism awmzia te, Mizo literary criticism hmasawn chhoh dan te min thlirpuiin Mizo literary criticism chu English literature te nena tehkhin phak rual loha naupang ni mah se, tehkhawng leh tehfung hrang hrang hmanga buk pawhin a zãng chhe lutuk tawh bik lo nia a hriat thu a sawi a. Chubakah Mizo literature chuan nihna leh kalphung hran a neih avangin hnamdang literature nena khaikhin vek theih a nih loh thu a tarlang bawk a ni.

Thu hlawm hnihnaah hian Mizo literature-a inhnialna ropui ber ti hiala chhal ngam tur ‘Zosapthara’ hla kalhmang chungchang, thu mu hnu chu a rawn kaitho leh a. Zosapthara hla phuah dan kalhmang, tawng dik lo leh hnunhnâng awm lo zet mai, ngaihngil luih ngai lutuk nia JF Laldailova’n a lo sawi tawh dan leh mi hrang hrangin Zosapthara thlavang an hauh dan chanchin chu ngaihnawm taka min chhui kualpui hnuah sirtlukna mumal tak min siampui lovin, Zosapthara avanga literary debate ropui tak lo chhuak chu Mizo literary criticism tan rahbi thar duhawm tak a nih thu a sawi a. Mizo hla phuahtute tan fimkhur lehzualna a nih a rin thu a sawi mek laiin amah ngei pawh hi ‘Zosapthara Style’-in a thinlung a hneh (influence)-zia lanna atan ‘Zosapthara Style’ ngata a hla phuah pawh a tarlang tel nghe nghe.

Bung thumnaah hian Mizo folk song-a intukna hla (satire) chungchang chu Thlanrawkpa khuangchawi atanga lo intan chho a nih dan chu bul tak atanga chhuiin min kawhhmuh a. Intukna hla chuan Mizo folk songah bu a khuar nasat thu leh tunlai thleng pawhin Mizo khawtlang nunah dinhmun thuk leh pawimawh tak a la luah reng niin a sawi.

Then linaah hian ‘Confessional poetry leh Mizote’ tih thupui tunlai tak, tunlai thangtharte zinga ‘theory tharlam’ tak leh rilru hneh thei tak ‘Confessionalism’ chu Mizo hla hluiah hmuh tur a tam thu te, a bikin Laltheri leh L.Biakliana te’n anmahni hringnun zinkawng hrehawm lutuk an puanchhuahna hlate chu he huang chhunga hmun sáng tak luah thei an nih thu te min hlui a. Chutih rual erawh chuan Mizo khawhar hla leh lengzem hla zawng zawng mai ‘confessional poetry’ anga khung theih deuhthawa han tarlan hi ‘thahnemngaihna’ chuang liam ni maiin a lang a. Amah ngei pawhin ‘Fet taka teh loh law law a nih chuan ...’ tih a telh zeuh nain duh duha lo phalrai mai chi erawh a ni lo. Miin a taka a tawn ni miah lo, a nunkawnga a dai buak ni reng reng lo, a suangtuahna khawvel leh a tawngkam thiamna hmang tangkaia hringnun hrehawm tinreng tuar anga a intarlanna hi ‘confessional poetry’ an tih hi a ni ngawt lo va, amah ngeiin ‘a ziaktute nena inkungkaihna nghet tak, pawh then theih loh a ni a, a phuahtu inpuanna a nih miau avangin, a chungchang sawinaah a phuahtute chanchin zir tel a ngai a, a phuahtute chanchin hriat tel leh chhui tel a tul,’ a tih tak mai hi bawhpelh leh lo namnul ngawt a thiang lo a ni.

Hlawm nganaah hian ‘RL Kamlala hla ziarang leh hla phuahtirtu’ nia a hriat chungchang min hawipui leh a. Hetah hian RL Kamlala hla phuah dan kalhmang te, a hla thu hman dan te chu technical taka min thlirpui hnuah, RL Kamlala hla phuahtirtu nia a hriat chi hrang hrang chu behchhan leh tan chhan mumal tak neiin min hrilh a. A bengvarthlak satliah mai a ni lo va, beng a verh a, beng a fah tel pha hial. Hetiang taka chik taka chipna hian RL Kamlala ropuina a belhchhah rualin Mizo literature chu pen khatin a thantir tih a chiang. He thlirna tarmit hmanga han thlir ve pawhin, RL Kamlala hla te kha ‘Bliblical’ hle mah se, a hla te kha ‘rihdil tawngkam’ taka cheimawi a ni tih hi a chiang a, a Mizo raih vek mai a ni.

Paruknaah chuan ‘Par mawi thang vulna Mizo hla’ tih a ni a, a thupui han chhiar ringawt chuan Liandala hla ‘Par mawi thang vulna’ tih hla min zirpui dawn emaw tih laiin, ‘Pangpar avanga Mizo hlate hi a taka par ve chauh an nih thu’ min sawipui a. Ziakmi leh ‘critic’ tia sawi theih pawh mi eng emaw zat kan lo nei ve tawh a, a thlirna tlang atanga thlir thlirpuitu hi an la awm meuh lo. ‘Pangpar hi Mizo hla tifamkimtu hialah a ngaih theih ang’ a tih te, ‘Lengzem hla lamah ngat phei chuan pangpar hi a par tial chuai a, a vul zawng leh a chuai zawngtein hman a ni thin,’ tih min hrilh a, ‘Mizo hla thu chu pangpar huan chi khat’ a nih mai thuin hmawr a bawk a ni.

Hlawm sarihnaah chuan ‘Zotawnga hla thu ziarang leh a hman dan’ tih a ni a, Mizovin hla thu atan kan bul vel thil leh nungchate kan hman tangkai thiamzia te, savain Mizo hla thu a tih hausak dan te, Mizo hla thu thenkhat chu hnamdang tana hriatthiam phak bak a nih thu te sawiin, Suakliana’n ‘Lawmna tuifinriat a inhawng’ a tih te, Patea’n ‘lawng chawlhna tlang thianghlim’ a tih te chu a ropuizia leh rilzia min hlui laiin, chutianga hla tuam mawitu hla thu danglam chher luih tumna thenkhat chu pawm hleih theih a nih loh dan te a sawi bawk.

Bung riatna leh bung kuana hi ‘book review’ niin C. Lalnunchanga ziak ‘Ka mi huaisen leh ka pasaltha’ tih leh Lalhmingliana Saiawi ziak ‘Lungrang Laiawrha’ thawnthu te bihchianna a ni.  Mizote’n literary criticism kan man thiam dan pakhat ‘book review’ a nih avangin a lehkhabu chungchangah a insawrbing hle a. A thlirna pawh ‘literary tak’ niin literature lama primary sikul tal kai pha lo tan chuan a thu khel tam tak hi tawmpui phak a har viau ang. Chutah tak chuan a zir mite thlirna atanga ‘genuine judgement’ tha tak a nih dan erawh kan hmu thei. Plot, character leh dialoque fuh tawk loh dan te chu pawmawm tak, a ziaktu tan pawha ‘Amen’ ngawih ngawihna turin a ziak thiamin a chik peih a, literature thanlenna atana chaw tha tak a tling.

Bung sawmna hi ‘book review’ huang chhungah a dah ve chiah lo nain a peng hla lo. ‘Critical analysis of ‘Engtin awm ta zel ang maw’ tih a ni a. Mizo ziakmi hmasa C. Thuamluaia kutchhuak pakhat zirchianna a ni. He ‘critical analysis’ hi ziakmite tana inzirna leh leh kawng kawhhmuhtu tangkai tak a nih theihna a tam mai. Fiction writer te hian phuahchawp liau liauin hringnun khawvel an din thei tih chu a chiang a, mahse, chu khawvel chu hringnun tak tak (real world) nen a inpersan lutuk chuan a ngaihnawmna a tlahniam a, mi hnehna a tlachham thin. Mihring nun leh thil tawna inhmu rem palh (co-incidence) hi chu a awm thei nameuh mai, mahse, awihawm lo leh chher chawp lutuka thlentir a nih chuan ngaihnawm aiin ninawm leh ngeiawm a chang thin zawk a ni tih he thlirna atang hian a hriat theih. He thawnthua a tawngkam hman (language) hrim hrim pawh a chik hle a, chutih rual chuan Pu Buanga Dictionary hi ‘Dik lo thei lo’ tluka tehkhawng leh tehfunga a hmang erawh a dik vek lo ve thei tih erawh a chhut ve a tul deuhin a lang.

Hlawm sawmpakhatna leh a hnuhnung ber hi ‘Tiau thiltihtheihna’ tih a ni mauh mai a. Mi vannei bikte’n mi tam tak pal liam tawhna hmuna pawisa an chhar tlat thei ang mai hian, Tiau lui hi pipute an rawn paltlang tawh hnuah leh ziakmi leh chikmi tam tak an liam tawn hnuah ani thlirna ang leh chhût anga chhûttu hi ka la tawng lo va, chutianga lo ziak tawh chu an awm a nih pawhin ka la chhiar fuh lo a ni tal ang. Tiau lui chu Mizo tawng thumal tam tak piah chhuahna a nih thu te, Mizo culture intanna a nih thu te, literature vul chhohna pawimawh tak a nih thu te chu history behchhanin a chhui a. Khawvel awptu British te khan Zofate pawh awlsam zawka an awp theih nan politician-te tawngkam takin, ‘barhluih ramri’ avangin Zofate an thendarh a, chu thendarhna atan chuan Tiau lui bawk hman a nih dan thiam taka sawiin, ‘Tiau lui hian kan khawsakna hmun chu ram hrang nihtir mah se, kan thinlung suihzawmtu leh luankhawmtirtu ni sela a duhawm hle mai,’ tiin Zohnahthlak insuihkhawm pawimawhnaah min luhpui a ni.

Heng thupui hrang hrang sawmpakhat bakah hian thuhmahruai leh hla hmahruai te pawh hi  zir tham a tling a, thuhmahruai phei hi chuan Mizo literary criticism history hi a hawl zauin a hawl kim hle a, lehkhabu chhuah hlawk lohzia thlenga min hrilhin, ‘tuina leh phurna avang chauha ziah chi niin a lang’ a ti nghe nghe.

Criticism hi ‘Creative writing’ tel lovin a awm thei lo va, criticism chawm loh creativity chu a famkim thei hek lo. Platoa khan a hun hmalama creative writing te sawisel chiam avang leh ‘poetry bu te a hàl’ hial avangin Aristotle-a khan ‘poetics’ hmangin literature nihna diktak a rawn pho lang a, chuta tang chuan criticism hi creativity chawmtu leitha leh tithangduangtu a la ni chho ta zel a ni.

Thuziakmite hi hlawm hnihin an then phawk theih a, âwmhàwp thuziaktu 'creative writer' leh chumi te thuziak lo tuihnih a, lo zirchiang a, lo belhchhah a, lo tihlu zualtu; a ziaktu leh a chhiartu inkara palai (ambassador) hna thawktu 'critical writer' te an ni. A lo dawngsawngtu tana literature tha tak leh rilru hneh thei tak chher chhuak turin 'creative writer' chuan 'literary theory' a hriat a pawimawh a, chutianga mi kutchhuak lo tuihnihtu leh lo fakseltu 'critical writer'/‘critic’ ngat phei chuan 'literary theory' hi a hriat a pawimawh mai a ni tawh lo va, a hriat ngei hi tulin a tul tawh zawk a ni. Chuvang chuan 'literary theory' hi 'criticism' in a a zui a ngai a, thu leh hla khawvelah chuan fartuah leh vaube ang mai hian an inparpawlh a tul a ni.

Chutiang taka criticism hi literature tithangduangtu leh chawmtu chaw tangkai a nih avang chuan a pawimawhzia hi kan la hre dawn chauh niin a lang a, chutih lai chuan ‘criticism’-a kan thlen chin leh chim chin erawh chuan duhthu a la sam tawk lo. He lehkhabu ziaktu ngei pawh hian tuna kan thlen chin atang hian ke la pen ngai leh la pen leh theih a nih a beisei vangin ‘Beiseina khawvel’ tiin a lehkhabu hming pawh hi a phuah a nih hmel. Chutah chuan inthlahrung angreng tak siin, mithiam leh chik peih dang te auchhuahna a nih theih nan, mi â zawk chu a au chhuak ta nia insawiin a prelude-ah chuan—

Tuifawn a ngawi a,
Tlang a phûl bulh bulh a,
Nungcha an reh a,
Lungte an au chuah chuah a,
Chhum a zâm a,
Chhimbal a inlet but but a.

Chu hmunah chuan,
Thihna nghakin
Mifing a ngawi a;
Mi â a au thung
‘Khawnge beiseina khawvel’ tiin.

He khawvelah hian thil nihna chu a letling fo va, chhimbal a inlet but but a, chhum a zâm chang a awm a; tlang phul bulh bulhin tuifawn erawh a ngawi duk chang a awm thin. Chutah tak chuan mifing leh thiam zawkte’n ngawih an chuh miau chuan, lungte leh mi â zawk nia ngaih pawh a auchhuah a tul thin. 

Criticism hmawr bawkna atan chuan, Zikpuii Pa’n Mizo Academy of Letters (MAL) ‘Book of the year’ hmasa ber B. Lalthangliana ziak ‘Ka lungkham’ tih lehkhabu a review-naa a thuziak hi i hmang teh ang. “Lunghlu bazar-ah chuan experts an awm châwk a, a chhan chu lunghlu leh lunghlu hi a lo inthlau thei viau a lo ni a; chubakah a lem mawi tak tak, a tak nena thliar hran theihloh khawpa mawi te hi a lo awm a, a inbum fuh vek vek te chu an inbum hlum thak thei a ni. Chuvangin lunghlu hrang hrang that leh that loh dan hre sise tur chuan mi mawl mit chu a tawk lova, mithiam mit rawih a ngai thin a ni. Chutiang bawkin literature khawvelah hian, thuziak tha leh tha lo min hrilh turin critical review min siamsaktu critic kan mamawh a. Thil tha rau rauah a tha bik riau leh that dan danglam taka tha te pawh a awm thei a; chutiang mi chu kan tunlai dinhmunah hian kan mamawh zual ta a ni’ a tih hi zaa za pawm tlak a ni.

He lehkhabu ziaktuin thu leh hla a rukruk (plagiarism) chungchang tawite a tarlan hi ziakmite tana thil pawimawh a tling. Social media khawvelah hian ‘copy paste’ hi nitin zantin kan hmuin kan chhiar a, chutih rualin literature-ah hian mi tih ‘copy pase’ ngawt ni lo, an tih dan zulzuia mawi leh tha zawk, hnunhnang ngah zawk leh mi hneh zawka an ziah thiam chuan, chu chu ‘creativity’ ropui a tling thung. William Shakespeare-a ngei pawh khan mi plot ru kualin, ama hming chherna lemchan 37 te kha a ziak chhuak ve mai mai niin an sawi ve tho. ‘Plagiarism a nih loh chuan zui tlak zui a, entawn tlak entawn hi hmasawnna tur pakhat a ni thei’ tia he lehkhabu ziaktuin a sawi hi lem mai piah lamah thial chip a, pai tawih a, literature-a min tithangtu tur a ni. Amah Zikpuii Pa ngei pawh khan, ‘..Mi entawna thil ti ve emaw, mahni awmchhuaka thu phuahchhuak phawng phawng kan tam ta a, thu phuai tak tak leh herh tak taka zamchhuak pawh kan tam ta. Tin, mi entawna thil ti pawh kan awm chho zel ang. Literature-ah chuan mi entawn hi a pawi hranpa lo va, mahse, entawn thiam leh thiam lo inkar erawh chu hla tak a ni. Ka sawi tum ber chu, kan literature thang chho zelah hian tunhma zawng aiin critic tha kan mamawh a ni,’ tiin a sawi. Fiamthu bu atanga bul tana, ‘pindan khawhar’ khawhara min luhpuitu TS Khupchong hi ‘critic tha mamawh chhanna’ a nih ngei ka beisei e.


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4 comments:

  1. Ngaihnawm hle mai, i lehkhabu hi ka chhiar thuak tawh a, exam zawh lama chiar nawn atan ka dah a, mah se exam pawh min puih thei viau dawn. Sir.Dm-a nge nge, review thiam hle mai...

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Ni e, a thiamin a hnehsawh ngawt mai Lb. Ka lawm lutuk e.

      Delete
  2. Lehkhabu release na a ka kal ve kha ka inchhir lo hle mai. Hetiang lehkhabu hi kan ram hian a mamawh em em te zing a mi a ni. @Tsa, dam reng la, ziak zel la, thu leh hlaah Zofate tihmasawntu ni zel ang che.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. U Buat, mi rawn ngai pawimawh hram hram kha ka lawm takzet a ni. I mi fuihna pawh ka hre reng ang.

      Delete

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