31 March 2018

India Union hnuaia Mizoram kan luh dan - R. Lallianzuala

Mizoram hi India State 23-na a ni a, kum 1987 February 20-ah khatih laia India Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi-an Aizawla Sipai Lammualah he thu hi  rawn puang a ni. Chumi hma chuan kum 1972 January ni 21 atangin Union Territory kan ni a. Chu chu chutih laia India Prime Minister Indira Gandhi-in Aizawla Sipai Lammualah bawk a rawn puang a, chumi ni la laah chuan NEFA (North Eastern Frontier Agency) tih reng thin pawh Arunachal Pradesh tih hming pu-a Union Territorry ni tura puang turin Itanagar a pan leh nghal a ni a. Kum 1954 atanga 1972 January ni 20 thleng Assam State hnuaiah Mizo District tih kan ni thin. Mizo District tih hming kan put hmain Lushai Hills District tih kan ni a. Chu Lushai Hills chu India ramah eng tik atanga lut nge a nih kan chhui dawn a ni. 
 
Tawng danga thuziak thui tak chhiar tel lo pawhin kan tawng, Mizo tawng ngeia ziah lehkhabu hrang hranga kan ziaktu hmasate thuziak min hnutchhiah atang hian kan chhui ang a. Thu dik lo ziah emaw, thudik famkim lo ziah emaw hian mi a hruai sual thei a. Chutih laiin thu inang reng dawng sawng rual vek pawh hian kan sawi chhawn leh dan a inang diak diak lo thei bawk tih erawh a hriat theih thung.
 
Kum 1947 August ni 14 zanlai, ni 15 a lo inher luh chiah atangin India chu Bristish ramawp chhung ami ni tawh lovin Independent ram a lo ni dawn ta a. Khatih lai tak khan tuna Mizoram, a hmaa Lushai Hills tih thin kha India hnuaia State pakhat Assam ram chhunga awm tawh sa reng a ni. Eng tik atangin nge Lushai Hills chu Assam ram hnuaiah a luh tih lo chhui leh ta phawt ila.
 
Kum 1872 January thlaah British sipai rualten Sailam lal Bengkhuaia sal naupang kawl Mary Winchester an rawn la let leh a. Chu chu Vai len hmasa (emaw Vai leh vawi khatna emaw) tih a ni. Khata Sipai rual Lushai Hills-a lo chhuakte kha an haw leh mai a, min awp hlen lo. British thuneituten Mizoram pawn chiah Barak phairuama chengte  Mizoten an run tawh tur a ni lo tiin thu an hnutchhiah a. Mahse, chu chu kan Mizo lalten an zàwm lem lo.
Tichuan kum 1889-ah British Sawrkar chuan Lunglei an rawn awp ta a, kum 1989 khan Lunglei kum zana pawh lawm a ni a. A kum leh 1890 February ni 25 atangin Aizawl an awp leh ta a, chu chu Vailen vawi hnihna (emw Vailen hnuhnung emaw) a ni a, kum 1990 February ni 25-ah khan mei mit lova Aizawl khawpui a din kum zana lawm a nih bawk nghe nghe kha. Kum 1890 atang chuan chhum lo chat lovin Mizoram hi British Sawrkarin Bawrhsap hmangin min awp ta a. Kum 1890-ah chuan Lushai Hills-a lal zawng zawngte chu an la tlawm vek lo deuh naa, zawi zawiin Lalburha (1892), Kairuma(1895) leh Ropuiliani (1899) te pawh an hneh zel a. Kum 1901 Chhiarpuiah chuan Mizoram, khatih laia Lushai Hills tih hming pu chhungah British awp loh khua a awm tawh lo.
 
Khawvel Indopui Pahnihna (1939-1945) a tawp thleng khan Lushai Hills-ah political party a la awm ngai lo va. Kum 1943 July atanga 1947 May thlenga Zoram Bawrhsap, Superintendent chu ARH Macdonald a ni. Macdonald Sap hma chiaha Zoram Bawrhsap chu AG McCall (1931-1943) a ni. Chutih lai chuan Mizoram hi Bial hnih - Chhim Bial leh Hmar Bial tia then phawk a ni a. Kum 1935 lam atanga chhim bial lalho ten Conference an lo neih thin tawh chu Bawrhsap Mc Call-a hovin hmar bial lamah pawh an nei ve ta a. Ram hmasawnna leh mipuite thawvenna kawng nia an hriat te an rêlho deuh ber thin. Chungah chuan Mizo lal 400 dawn lai te chu kal kim barh a harsa a, chuvangin C.I  Bial tin lalte chu Lalho Conference-a tel turin aiawh pakhat zel thlantir an ni ta a. Chungho, kum 1940 October thlaa thlanchhuah lal 26 te chuan Bawrhsap leh a thuihruaite nen 1941 October ni 13 leh 14 khan Thenzawlah ram pum huap Lalho Conference vawi khatna an hmang ta a. Kha kha Mizoten democracy zepui, aiawh thlan chhuahte rorelna (representative principle) kan hman tanna a tih theih àwm e.
 
Chutianga lalho inkhawm thin  chu ‘Lushai Chiefs Durbar’ tih hming puttir  a ni a. Kum 1945-ah Indopui Pahnihna a lo tawp ta a. Kum 1946 January ni 14-16 chhung khan Bawrhsap Macdonald-a chuan Intihhlimna, Entirsiakna leh lalho aiawh thlanna ni fàwmin Indopuia Hnehna Lawmna Ni ropui a siam a. Hmar bial mipui sing hnih lai tur chu Aizawlah an pung khawm a. Ni hmasa berah chuan lal aiawh mai ti tawh lovin C.I Bial tin atangin Lal Aiawh 13 leh Vantlang Aiawh 13 Inthlanna hun an siam ta a, chu chu ‘District Conference’ vuah a ni. Bawrhsâp Macdonald-a ruahmannaa Aizawl Biala Circle tin aiawh thlan chhuah mi 26 te chu January ni 18, 1946-ah Bawrhsâp Pisaah an thukhawm ta a. Chhim Bial aiawh inthlanna pawh Lunglei Civil S.D.O-in July 1946-ah a neihpui ve ta a. Lal pasarih leh Hnamchawm mi pasarih bawk an thlang chhuak a. July ni 20, 1946-ah Aizawl Bial aiawhte Inkhawm vawi hnihna koh a ni a. Lunglei Bial aiawhte nen kokim takin November ni 7, 1946 khan Aizawla District Conference tum khatna chu Bawrhsâp Pisaah an thu tan ta a. Chu chu Hmar Bial tan chuan thutkhawm vawi thumna a ni tawh a, ram pum huap erawh chuan a tum khatna a ni chauh va. An inkhawm hmingah chuan Bawrhsâp Macdonald-a chuan ‘Rorêl Khâwl’ a vuah a. Macdonald Sap khan Zoram mipuite thatna tur tak ngaihtuah nia a inhriat laiin Mizo Union Hruaitute nen an thu a inmil hlei thei ta lo va, India Independent dawn têp, May 1947 khan Mizoram a chhuahsan hlen ta nghe nghe a. Bawrhsap tak tak L.L.Peters-an a rawn thlâk hma chhung hun rei  lo te chhung chu Lunglei SDO  D.A Penn-an Bawrhsap charge a lo la lailawk  a ni.
 
India ram a lo independent tâkah chuan mahnia Constitution hran nei turin Constitution duangtu, Constituent Assembly siam a ni ta a. Chairman-ah Dr. Rajendra Prasad, Secretary-ah Dr. B.R.Ambedkar te an ni a. Kha Constituent Assembly-ah khan Mizo Member kan awm ve lo.  Khatih laia Assam rama lal ber, Premier an tih mai chu Gopinath Bardoloi a ni a. Pu Bardoloi-a chu Constituent Assembly Advisory Sub-Committee Chairman a ni a. Member-te chu Thakar Baba, Sir B.N Rao, Rev. JJM Nichols Roy leh Tenjam Aliba Ao te an ni a. He Advisory Committee Secretary hi Mr. Ramadhyani ICS a ni. Pu Bardoloi-a, Chairman  hovin Advisory Sub-Committee Member-te chu Aizawlah  April 17, 1947 khan an thukhawm a. Constituent Assembly Advisory Sub-Committee-a Co-opted Member pahnih Mizo kan tel theih tur thu Chairman chuan a rawn puang a. Chuta Member tur chuan Pu Khawtinkhûma leh Pu Ch. Saprãwnga te thlan an ni a.
 
Pu Khawtinkhûma Mizo Union President a nih tak tak hnua Mizo Union  Party General Assembly neih hmasak ber chu April 22, 1947-ah Aizawlah neih a ni a. Tah chuan Advisory Sub-Committee hnena thehluh tur Mizote tana rawtna engemaw zat an siam a, chung zinga pakhat chu han tarlang ila (Mizorama Politics Inlumleh Chhoh Dan tih bu Pu P.Lalnithanga ziah, First Edition, 2008-a Lengchhawn Press chhut phek 40-41-ah he thu hi kan hmu).
 
“India ram hi ama kea a din veleh tuna Mizoram hi Assam-ah a tel ang a, kawng eng engah emaw chuan Assam sawrkar nen an inzawm ang. Chung inzawmna tur thil chu Assam dan siam pawl leh Mizoram dan siam pawlten inrawn khawmin an la titlu ang” tih te,  “Hemi ram hi tun achinah Mizoram tih a ni ang a, Chutah chuan hengte hi an tel ang:
 
(i) Tuna Lushai Hills hi  (ii) Mizoram zawm Cachar biala Mizo 9,000 lai awmna mêl kil li 300 laia zau khu  (iii) Mizoram zawm Chittagong tlang rama Mizo 5,000 lai awmna mêl kil li 3,000 laia zau khu (iv) Mizoram zawm Meitei tlang rama Mizo 7,000 lai chenna, mêl kil li 3,500 laia zau leh  (v) Mizoram zawm Rengpui ram (Tripura) biala Mizo 7,000 lai awmna, mêl kil li 250-a zau nen” tih te an ni.
 
Heta “India ram hi ama kea a din veleh tuna Mizoram hi Assam-ah a tel ang a” tih thu Constituent Assembly Advisory Sub-Committee-a thehluttu, Co-opted Member an nih vang kha ni maw, Pu Khawtinkhûma leh Pu Ch. Saprãwnga te kha India rama Mizo ram hralhtu-a puh an ni châwk thin.
 
‘Zoram Politics Thli Tleh Dan Volume -I’ phek 20-24 ah chuan heti ang hian Pu C. Hermana'n a ziak :
 
“Kum 1947 a rawn inher chhuah chuan hun danglam tak mai a lo thleng ta a, British sorkar chuan a ram awp khawmte zalenna pea thawhsan a lo tum ta a. Chumi hma chuan India ram chu dominion pahnihah a then a, a zau zawk chu Hindu hovin an chang a, a hming pangngai INDIA tih chu an chhawm a. Pakhat chu Mosolman hovin changin hming thar PAKISTAN tih an vuah a. India ram map-a bet ve thin Burma pawh hetih rual hian sakthlak fel ve nghal a ni a. Mizoram chhim thlang lam rawn ritu East Bengal pawhin an duhthlanna hmangin an Mosolman pui ram thar Pakistan chu, India atanga tal hrangin an zuk zawm a. East Bengal tih hming pu thin kha East Pakistan tih an lo ni ta. Tichuan, Mizoram chu ram hrang pathum, India, Burma leh East Pakistan te inkarah a tlazep ta kâk mai a ni.
 
 Min kârchehtu ram thar pathumte chuan an ram ro inrelna tur Danpui (Constitution) an duang ta mup mup mai a. An han siam zawh chuan tu ram mah chuan Mizoram chu an Danpui huang chhungah chuan an lo senglut tel hauh lo mai a. Mizote zinga ngaihtuahna hmang thei chinte thluak chu a vir buai ve tan ta a. Thenkhatin INdependent-a awm, thenkhatin British thlazar hnuaia Crown Colony-a awm, thenkhatin India zawm, thenkhatin Burma zawm te an sawi mawi ta hlwm a.

Chu inkhawmah chuan Mizorama pawl awmte chu an tel kim hle a. Political party aiawh te, Sipai bang aiawh te, Khhran hrang hrang aiawhte leh Young Lushai Association (YLA) leh Hmeichhe Tangrual Pawl aiawh te thlngin an tel a. An thurel chu hetiang hian record-a vawn that a ni.

1. RESOLVED that owing to the unexpected acceleration of the date of transfer of power by the British Government and as the Lushais have not yet been definitely informed in details as to what is to be the proposed future Constitution and form of administration of the District and as Section (7) Sun Section (2) of the Indian Independence Bill does not clarify the situation. It is accordingly thought necessary that His Excellency the Governor of Assam should kindly inform them in writing as to what these are to be also whether Lushaia are at this stage allowed the option of joining any other dominion, i.e Pakistan or Burma. RESOLVED further  that the Superintendent of Lushai Hills should kindly communicate the above request of the Lushais to the Adviser to His Excellency the Governor of Assam in order to clarify these points.

2. RESOLVED that if the Lushais are to enter the Indian Union their demands are :
(i) That the existing safeguards of their Customary laws and land tenure etc. should be maintained.
(ii) That the Chin Hills Regulation 1896 and Bengal Eastern Frontier Regulation 1873 should be retained until such time the Lushais themselves through their District Council or other parallel authority declared that this can be abrogated.

3.That the Lushais will be allowed to opt out of the Indian Union when they wish to do so, subject to a minimum period of ten years.


                                Sd/- L.L.PETERS  14/8/47
                                    Superintendent
                                       Lushai Hills

Sawi lan tawh angin kan thenawm ram indang tir te chuan an Danpui huang chhungah Mizoram leh Mizo mipuite chanvo an lo valh lut tel ve hauh lo mai a. Chuvang chuan August 14, 1947 a Bawrhsap hova Mizo mipui aiawhtute inkhawm pawh hian, bengsika an ngaihtuah hnuah Assam rama thuneitu sang ber Governor chu Mizote awm dan tur, Burma emaw Pakistan emaw zawm chungchang thlenga rawn hrilhfiah turin an phût a.

‘Ta ang ila’ tih thil thu-ah, India lo zawm ta ang an nih chuan mahni hnam dan hmanga ro an inrelna leh ram leilung chunga thuneihna te Mizote kuta awm zui zel turin an sakhithingchunglawn nghal a. British sorkarin Mizote humhalh nana Dan a hman lai, Chin Hills Regulation, 1896 leh Bengal Eastern Frontier Regulation, 1873 te chu Mizoten tul an tih chhûng chu hman chhunzawm zel an phût bawk a. A tawpah India lo zawm ta pawh ni se kum 10 hnu lama duhdan sawi leh theihna nena indelhkilhin thu tlâng an kàwm a ni” tiin.
    
Kum 1966 March ni 1-ah Mizo National Front chuan Mizo independence a puan tâk avangin India ram chhunga inthlanna chi reng reng - VC. MDC. MLA leh MP chuh thei lo turion MNF Party chu dah a lo ni ta a. Kum 1976 July ni 1-ah India Sawrkar leh MNF Party Hruaituten New Delhi-a Inremna an siamah chuan “MNF Palaite chuan Mizoram hi India ram bung hrang laimu pakhatah a pawm a, chutichuan India Sawrkar hnenah Mizoram harsatna zawng zawng chinfelna chu India Danpui chhungah ni se tih chu an pawm thu an hriattir a ni” The MNF delegation acknowledged that Mizoram is an integral part of India and conveyed to the Government of India their resolve to accept a settlement of all the problems in Mizoram within the framework of the Constitution of India tiin MNF President Pu Laldengan a lo sign a. India Sawrkar aiawhin S.L.Khurana, Home Secretary te, S.K.Chhibber, Lt. Governor of Mizoram leh M.L.Kampani, Joint Secretary (North East) ten hming an sign thung a. Hei vang hi ni leh tak maw, tu tuteemaw chuan ‘Pu Laldenga kha alawm Mizoram India ram chhunga ziak meuhva rin lûttu chu’ an ti ve leh bawk.

Tichuan Mizoram hi Pu Laldengan emaw, Pu Ch.Saprawnga leh Pu Khawtinkhuman emaw India rama an hralh luh tak a lo ni awzawng lo ve tiin Pu R.Thanhlira chuan a ziak a. A thu ziak Mizoram leh Kei tih bu 2012-a GILZOM Offset Press-a chhut, phek 196 atanga 209 ami hi a ngai ngaiin i’n bih nawn teh ang u.

(a) Independence hmaa India dinhmun : India ram chu British Sawrkarin a awp lai khan thuang hnihin a kal a - Protected Native States leh British India an tih te chu. Protected Native State te hi British Sawrkar ram tak an ni lo a; mahse British nen Thuthlung siamin, British Sawrkar humhimna leh an hliahkhuhna hnuaia awm an ni. Heng Native State ram te hian mahni lal (Raja/Maharaja) neiin, anmahni ro inrelna an nei a. A lian deuh te chuan sipai te, tangka te, dãk leh inbiakna te leh rel kawng te pawh an nei hrang a. A lar zual thin te chu Hyderabad, Mysore, Kashmir, Patiala, Travancore etc. an ni a. Manipur leh Tripura te pawh chutiang zinga mi chu an ni. Hetiang dinhmun neite zingah hian, Mizo lalte kha pakhat mah an tel ve lo a ni.

Tin, Native State ni lote chu “British India” an ti bîk a. Chung chu British ramlâk leh an awp chiah te an ni. British India chu bung hrang sawm leh pakhat (11) ah an then a; chungte chu State vuah loin Province an vuah a - Assam, Bengal, Punjab, Bihar etc. ang te. Burma ram pawh kum 1937 hma lam zawng kha chuan, British India-a Province pakhat a ni thin.

Chutichuan, British hun laiin, India ah chuan British India leh Protected Native States an awm hrang a nih chu. Ram lem (political map) ah te reng reng hian, Protected Native State te chu rawng engin entir an ni thinin, British India (India ram kan tih thin) chu rawng senin entir an ni thin. Lushai Hills (Mizoram) pawh, British India dang ang bawkin, rawng sena lantir an ni thin.

(b) British hun laia Indiaa Mizoram dinhmun : Kum 1889 tawp lam ah British sawrkarin Mizoram (Lushai Hills) a rawn rûn a; Vailian kan ti a. Sipai te chu  an kalna apiang ah an tlang zar zar a; rang takin Mizoram chu British chuan a nei ta a. Khasi ram chu British Sawrkarin a rùn lai khan kum li lai a tang thei a; Khasi lal engmaw zat chu Mizo lalte ang bawkin, ram leilung neitu nihna nen British in a pawm a; saui tanin an lalna pawh a chhawmtir zel a ni. Kan tluk lo hle. Mizoram chu British India-ah siamin, British India lo ni tawh sa Bengal ramah Lunglei bial te chu an behtir a; Aizawl bial erawh chu Assam ram, British India bawkah chuan an teltir a. Mahse, kum 1898 ah Aizawl leh Lunglei bialte chu hlãwm pakhat, Lushai Hills District-ah siamin, Assam ramah an khung ta vek a. Chuta tang chuan kum 1972-ah Union Territory a nih thleng khan, Assam rama District pakhat a ni ta reng a ni.

Indian Penal Code (IPC) hi British India-a hman atan kum 1860-ah siam a ni a(Act No. XLV of 1860). Scheduled District Act 1874 (14 of 1874) a Section 5 thuneihna hmangin, IPC pawh chu kum 1898 ah Lushai Hills (Mizoram) an huamtir ta nghe nghe a. (vide Gazette of  India 1898 Pt. II p.345). Vailen atang chuan India Independence (1947) thleng khan Mizoram chu British India a nih sûtna a awm ta rêng rêng lo a ni. Amaherawhchu, Mizoram chu ram hnufual, hnam ã leh mãwl, sawrkar lakah pawh la hmin zân lo anga ngaih a nih avangin Assam ram hmun dangte ang loin, political area angin, mãwl leh khauh taka awp a ni zui ta a. Chutiang hmanga awp chu India ram hmun dangah te pawh an awm ve rêng a ni. Chutichuan, British Sawrkarin India a awp lai chuan, Mizoram chu British India-ah a tel reng a nih chu. Official te pawh, tangka pawh India sawrkar tangka lo chu a awm ngai lo a ni. Chuvangin India a indan (independent) thleng khan, Mizorama sawrkar hnathawk zawng zawng, Mizo leh hnam dangte pawh, India sawrkar mi rawih vek an ni a. Tin, kum sawm dan zela mihring chhiarpui (census) India Sawrkarin a siam thu-ah pawh, Mizoram mipui te chu chhiar tel an ni ve ziahin, India ram mipui tam lam ziahnaah an telh zel thin a ni.

(c) “Excluded Area” awmzia : Kum rei tak chhung chu British hnuaiah chuan India mipuite chuan zalènna boruak an hîp pha lo a; lungawi lohna pawh a lo zualkai ta zel a. Chu chu thawi dam turin, British chuan India ramah mipuite aw lal ve turin, ram rorelna Dan a siam tha ta a; ram bung (province) tin ten mahni thuneihna tâwkfang (provincial autonomy) nei turin a rel ta a. Chu Danpui chu Government of India Act, 1935 tih a ni a. Chutichuan, Province tin te chuan Legislative Assembly (dan siamna) mipui thlan leh Ministry an nei ta a. Assam pawh chuan chutiang Legislative Asembly chu a nei ta a. Nimahsela, bial hnufual zual thenkhat, mipui sawrkarna la phâk ve lova an ngaihte an awm a. Chungte chu “Excluded Area” an vuah a. “Excluded” awmzia chu “huam tel ve loh”,  “daidan hnan” tihna a ni.

Excluded Area hi chi hnih a awm thin a - Partially (engemaw chena) Excluded leh Wholly (a pumhluma) Excluded tih an ni. Assam ramah chuan Naga Hills, North Cachar Hills leh Lushai Hills te chu “Wholly Excluded” kan ni a; Khasi & Jaintia Hills leh Garo Hills (Meghalaya ni ta) leh Mikir Hills te chu “Partially Excluded” an ni thin. Excluded Area hian a kawh chu, India ram emaw, Assam ram emaw laka “excluded” a ni lo a; Assam Legislative Assembly leh Assam Ministry te thuneihna laka “excluded” a ni zâwk a ni.

Tin, Government of  India Act, 1935 in a rel angin, Excluded Area te hi Governor mi mal hnuaiah leh ama enkawl tura dah an ni a. Chuvangin, India ram independent hma zawng kha chuan Lushai Hills leh Naga Hills  leh North Cachar Hills te chu Assam rama tel ni ve mah sela, Assam Sawrkarin an chungchang a relsak ngai hauh lo a; Governor kut liau liau-ah an awm a; ani chuan Bawrhsap te hmangin ro a relsak thin a ni. Chutichuan, Lushai Hills chu Naga Hills leh North Cachar Hills te ang bawkin Excluded Area a nih lai khan Assam ram a ni tho a, British India a ni tho bawk a; mahse, Assam Governor enkawlin a awm a ni.
 
Union Territory leh State a nih hma khan Arunachal Pradesh (North Eastern Frontier Agency tih thin) hi Assam rama telh a ni a. Nimahsela, District Council takngial pawh nei tlâk lo khawpa mãwl leh la changkãng lo-a ngaih a nih avangin, tlangmi dangte chuan Assam-ah MLA kan neih tawh lai khan, Assam Assembly ah aiawh (MLA) nei ve loin, Assam Governor chuan Adviser pakhat hmangin a enkawl thin a. Hei hi Excluded Area tia vuah a ni lo nain, Excluded Area tih nen khan a zia a thuhmun chiah a ni a. Khatih hun lai pawh khan India a nih loh phah chuang lo.

(d) Independence dawna India ram sawi danglam dan : Kum 1947 hma lam kha chuan, tuna Pakistan ram leh Bangladesh ram te hi India ram an ni thin tih chu thangthar te pawhin an hre àwm e. British Sawrkarin India chhuahsan lo thei lo nia a inhriat tâkah khan, India ram Muslim hruaitu te chuan, Pakistan ram dìn tîr nan India ram a Muslim bitna bial te chu India atanga sak thlâk ni turin an ngiat ta tlat mai a. Chuvangin, hmun tam takah Hindu leh Muslim inkarah buaina rapthlak tak tak a chhuak a; Bengal-ah phei chuan an insãm nasa hle mai a. Kum 1946 a Calcutta Inthahpui (The Great Calcutta Killings) te kha theihnghilh a har hle ang. Chutiang chu a nih avangin, India hruaitute pawh chuan, India ram atangin Pakistan ram tur sah thlâk chu, rilru na tak chungin an remti ta a. British Sawrkar hriatpuiin, insiamrem dan tur te chu an rel ta vek a. Chung te chu Indian Independence Act, 1947 (India Indanna Dan, 1947) ah a chuang a. He Indian Independence Act hi London ah Royal Assent (Kumpinu Remtihna) pawh July 18, 1947 ah pêk a ni a. Chu Dan ang chuan India rama lal nei hrang ho, British ram lâk ni loa, mahse a hliahkhuhna hnuaia awm, Protected Native State te kha, anmahni hliahkhuhtu, British Sawrkarin a chhuahsan hun (lapse of paramouncy) ah chuan, an duh ang ang thlan theihna zalènna pêk an ni a. A duh apiangin India emaw Pakistan emaw an zawm ang a; an duh chuan an insawrkar hrang (independent) thei ang,  tih a ni.
 
Tin, British India ram chhungah chiang taka Muslim ho bitna bial - Sind, Baluchistan, N.W.F Province leh tuna Bangladesh ni ta  te chu Pakistan an ni ang a. Tin, Assam rama Sylhet District leh Punjab ah te chuan, dinhmun a chian tâwk loh avangin, mipui ngaihdan lâkna (referendum) a awm ang, tih a ni bawk a. Mipui duhdan lâk a nih hnuah chuan, Sylhet District chu East Pakistan-ah a lût ta a; tin, Punjab ram chanve vel zet pawh West Pakistan-ah a lût ve ta a ni.

Chutiang chuan Pakistan pian nana India ram sah thlâk tur chu, British India leilung atangin a ni a. Ram insemtu tur te chu India leh Pakistan an ni a. Helai thilah hian, ram dang - Burma, British emaw, Nepal emaw te chu eng vàng mahin an tel ve rêng rêng lo a ni. Pakistan ram a tel lo tur chu India-ah awm zui zel tur a ni ringawt mai a ni. Lushai tan, Garo tan, Khasi emaw Naga emaw tan duhthlanna - Pakistan zawm, Burma zawm, British ram awp nih zêl - hawn a awm rêng rêng lo a ni.

“India ram hmarchhakah khian hnam hnufual leh changkang lo (backward tribes) tam tak an awm a. An nunphung leh an sakhua te pawh a danglamin, Hindu leh Muslim ang an ni lo a. British Sawrkarin India a lo chhuahsan dawn hian, chung mite chu engtin nge in tih dawn?” tiin British Parliament London ah M.P pakhat chuan May 1947 ah zawhna a siam a. Heta hnam hnufual a tih te hi Mizo, Garo, Khasi, Naga etc. anmahni mingo ho azara Kristian sakhua vuantute hi an ni bîk deuh niin a lang a. Tin, independence a lo hnaih lai khan, Sap mingo Missionary te leh Sawrkar-a British Officer lian tam takin, chung tlangmite chenna ram chu British ramawp (Crown colony) ni zui zel mai se, tia sawi rîkna chak tak an nei nghe nghe a. Mahse, British Sawrkar chuan a pawm sak lo a. Khi mi zawhna khi, Parliament-ah vêk chuan Sawrkarin a chhâng nghal a, “India ram hi British Sawrkarin  a chhuahsan hunah chuan, a pumin a chhuahsan ringawt mai dawn a ni. India-ah hian hnam hnufual tam tak an awm tih kan hria a; chung hote enkawl dan tur chu India hruaitute hian an hria a; an kutah an him tâwk a ni” tiin. Duhthlanna a hawng hauh lo.

Chutichuan, British Sawrkar a chhuah hunah chuan British India a ram bung thenkhatte sât thlain Pakistan din a ni ang a; a bâk chu India a ni ang. Tin, Native States (Raja/Maharaja nei) te erawh chuan India emaw Pakistan emaw an zawm thei ang a; an duh chuan independent sawrkar pawhin an ding thei ang, tih a nih chu. Chutiang te zingah chuan Mizo lal pakhat mah an tel lo. Tin, India leh Pakistan inkára leilung ramri kal dan tur chungchangah inhnial theihna lai te a awm a. Chung chu ching fel turin Radcliff Commission an siam a. Chu chuan a chingfel ta bawk a ni.

(e) British hnuaia Mizo lalte dinhmun : Mizoramah sikul an hawn tirhin naupangte tan a Zirtirh Bu an siamah chuan, “Mizo ramah lal chi bîk an awm lo. Hnam tin anmahni tâwkin an lal. An indo a, a ngam lo apiang mi khuaah an lût thin” tih a chuang a. Tu mahin a dik lo a ni  tiin an hnial ngai lo. Hei hian hmasang Mizo lalte dinhmun leh nungchang a hril chiang hle a ni. Tin, British Sawrkarin Mizote ram a lâk hma kha chuan Mizo lalte chu mahni tâwka lal (independent) theuh an ni a. British Sawrkar pawhin Mizo te ram chinah a ngaih a awm a. Chu chu Cachar ram depa Mizo lal, Suakpuilala hnenah an ramri pawh, Thuthlung ang ziak meuhin January 1871-ah khan an pe a.  Nimahsela, a khua leh tuite chuan chu Thuthlung chu an pawmsak loh avangin rin hlen a ni ta lo a ni.

Kum 1889 December-ah British Sawrkarin Mizoram a rawn rùn lai khan Mizo lalte chu an tê hlawm a. Tin, lalte zawng zawng inthlunkhawmna (Central government) an neih bawk loh avangin an tangrual thei lo a. Chuvangin, awlsam takin Mizoram chu an la ta a ni. Kan Mizo lalte an hmuh dan pawh kha a nêp deuh a nih ngei a rinawm; India ram lal (Raja) te leh Khasi State lal te anga Thuthlung taktak an siampui pawh tumah an awm lo niin a lang. Mizo lal thenkhat te chu an khua leh tuiten an hlau a, an tih a; lal thenkhatte erawh chu an ngaisangin an ngainain an zah êm êm thin a ni. Vailen hnuah chuan lalte zingah Sailo hnam an tam ber a, “lal chi” an inti bîk deuh a; hnamdang lalte chuan “Hnamchawm lal” tih an hlawh thin. Mahse, Sawrkar atanga ramri lehkha nei an nih phawt chuan lal dik tak an ni theuh a; an dinhmun pawh a thuhmun vek a ni.
 
Mizo lal te chu an khua leh tuite tha taka enkawl tur leh kaihruai tura beisei an ni a. Chu chu lala an thutna chhan ber pawh niin a lang. Tin, lal a thih chuan a aiawh tur chu “a fate zinga mi a ni deuh ber ang” tih a ni chauh a; a tul dan azirin mi dang daih pawh Sawrkar chuan lalah a thuttir thei a ni. N.E.Parry ICS, kum 1924-1928 chhunga Mizoram Bawrhsap a thu chuan Sawntlung khaw lal a bàn a. Mr. A.G McCall ICS, 1931-1943 chhunga Bawrhsap pawhin lalte hnenah “an lalna chu en tha sela, an khuate rorelin vawng tha turin ngaihtuah rawh se; chuti lo chu Sawrkar leh khua leh tui tan, anmahni leh an fate lal atan an awm hi a tha lo zâwk dah ang e,” tiin a hrilh (vide Mizo leh Vai Chanchin Bu, July 1936 p.121) Tin, amah vêk hian, “Tuna Bawrhsap hi a lo awm chinah lal pahnih chauh thlâk an ni. Pakhat an thlâkna chhan chu, he lal emaw a fate emaw hi Mizo ramah rorel tlâk niin an hriat tawh loh vang a ni...Pahnihna chu, lal hna thawh tur a thawh loh vang a ni...Lal tupawh ... a khua leh tui enkawl a ngaihthaha, thil tha lo te a tih chuan, Governor-in a bàn mai ang... Lal te hi Governor remtiha an khua leh tuite chunga rorel tura ruat an ni,” a ti bawk. (vide Mizo leh Vai Chanchin Bu, January 1941 pp. 7-8) Tin, ARH MacDonald ICS, 1943-1947 chhunga Bawrhsap pawhin khaw pathum - Mimbung, Kawnpui leh Khawlian lalte a bàn bawk.

Tin, Mizo lalte khan an khua leh tuite ang bawkin ram leilung chungah neitu nihna an lo nei lo niin a lang. Bawrsap A.G.McCall vêk khan thingtlang khua a fannaah te an khaw leilung chu Sawrkar ram a niin, khaw mipuite hman atan pêk a nih thu lalte hnenah a sawi thin  an ti a. Chutiang chu a dik a nih chuan “lal ram” aiin “khaw ram” (village land) ni zâwkin a lang. Tin, lal khua ramri te pawh a tul dan ang zela kham that theihna thuneihna pawh Bawrhsap kutah a awm avangin, ram leilung chu lal mimal ta an ni lo tih a chiang a. Tawngkamin “lal ram” kan tih mai thin te kha lal thenkhatte ram sahthlâk sakin khaw thenawm ramah Sawrkarin a pêk sak tâk te pawh an awm rêng a ni. Tin, Mizo lalten an khua leh tuite hnen atanga an dawn ngei tur, an chanvo (rights) liau liau atan Sawrkarin a lo ruat chu buh chhùn (fathang) a ni a. Chuvangin, lalte chu Village Council a thlâk an lo nih khan, zângnadawmna (compensation) tur pawh, an buhchhùn dawn zât athu khan an chhût sak ta a nih kha.

Chutichuan, Mizo lalte kha kawng tinrengah Sawrkar thuhnuaia awm an nih avangin, British Sawrkarin India a kalsan dawn khan, Pakistanah telh chi a nih si loh avangin Mizoram chu British India hmun dang ang bawkin, India-ah tel turin min hnutchhiah ta a ni.  

MNF ten ralthuam an pêk luh hma deuhhlek khan Naga hruaitu hranghlui A.Z.Phizo chu London-ah Pu Laldênga nena an dinhmun danglamna chanchinbu miten an zâwt a. “Naga ram chu India in a rún a, Laldênga hote chu India Sawrkar laka hel an ni alãwm,” tiin a chhang a. A chhanna tawi te hian thu thui takin a sawifiah thawkhat hle niin a lang. Naga hruaitute chuan, kum 1930 hma lam tawhah khan ‘India mi kan ni lo, India ah pawh kan tel lo’ tiin Simon Commission hnenah an lo thehlut tawh a. Tin, British Sawrkarin India a chhuahsan dawn pawh khan chu bawk chu an thu lâk dan a ni thin a. British a chhuah fel veleha independent sawrkara ding thei turah Naga chuan an inngai a; an inzirtir dan pawh a ni thin. Kum 1948-ah Shillong khuaa an hruaitu thenkhatte kan kawmnaah pawh an khauh khawp mai. Assam rama tlangmi theuh kan nih avangin, kum 1952 atangin MLA te kan neih ve hunah chuan Assam tlangmite chu Assembly-ah pawl khat ah inhlawmin tangrual tlat ila  tia kan sawiin, “Nangni chu in fing alãwm! keini chu kan ã a. India-ah kan tel ngai dawn lo a; kan independent dawn. Kan chem leh kan fei te hi kan neih chhûng chuan engmah kan hlau lo a ni,”  an ti bung hut zel mai a, kan tluk lo khawp mai.

An tum ang ngei chuan an che zui ta rêng a. India independent hnua inthlanpui hmasa ber, kum 1952-a lo awmah chuan District Council Member (MDC) te, MLA te, MP te thlan a lo hun ta a. Mahse, tumah an inpe lo a, tumahin vote an thlâk  duh ta bawk lo va. India politiks atang chuan an inthiar fihlim famkim khawp mai. Tunah hian kum 50 chuang zet chu India an do ta a; mahse India sawrkar chuan vawiin thleng hian khaihlak awm hauh loin Naga ramah ro a rêl ta zel tho a ni.Tin, Sawrkar lakah helin ramhnuaia bibo tâwk awm mah sela, Inthlanpui hunbi dang lo awmah te chuan an tel ve ta a. Kum 1963-ah Assam ram atanga Naga ram lâk hran a nih hma khan, Assam Assembly-ah an MLA te an thu hlawm hman a ni.

Mizoramah ve thung chuan kum 1948-ah mipuiin phûr takin Lushai Hills Advisory Council kan thlang a. Kum 1952 atanga tun thleng hian District Council, U.T Assembly, State Asembly leh Parliament Member turte thlan apiangah Mizoram mipui chu phûr takin kan tel zel a. Hei hian Mizoram mipuiten India an pawm chianzia a lantir fiah hle a ni.

“India independent rual khan Mizoram pawhin kawng dang dang zawh turin duh thlan theihna a nei a. Mahse, khâng hun laia kan politiks hruaitute kha an lo màwl êm avangin India-ah min hruai lût ta a ni” tiin mi thenkhat ten thu an vawrh vel vak vak thin hi thil dik a nih lohzia chu ka’n tarlan tâk te leh, Naga ram dinhmun atang te pawh hian mi pangngai tan chuan hriat thiam theih mai àwm tak a ni.

India a lo indan dawn lai vel khan, Khasi leh Garo ram (tuna Meghalaya) hruaitute ang bawkin, Mizo Union hruaitute chuan India rama Assam-ah kan awm zui rih dawn a ni tih chu an hre mai a. Chuvangin, Mizo mipuite dinhmun leh Mizo hnam zia leh nunphung te humhalh theihna dan tur kawng dapin Mizo Union chu a hmanhlel ta a. Chutia an inhmanna chuan Indian Constitution-ah Sixth Schedule-a Autonomous District Councils chungchang lo chuang ta chu a rawn hring ta a ni. Tichuan, kum 1952 ah MP, MLA  leh MDC kan nei tan a; hmasáng atanga Mizo mipuite phurrit leh hnehchhiah an nih thinna hmanrua te chu Mizo Union chuan a nam thla ta phawk phawk mai a nih kha! Chung laia hruaitute leh mipuite vah èn saa lo pianga seilian tate chuan, kan mi hmasate hnathawh ropuizia leh an inpêk zawhzia te an hre phâk lo a; hriat pawh an tum lêm lo niin a lang.
 
Advisory Sub-Committee ah Pu Ch.Saprãwnga leh Pu Khawtinkhûma Co-opted Member angin an tel avanga Mizoram hralhtu ni ta lua-a sawi te pawh hi, khang lai hun chiang taka tem leh hre phâk te tan chuan, thil nuihzatthlâk a tling thei lek lek thin a ni. Khatia Co-opted Member an nih hma atang tawh khan Mizo Union chuan India Thar-a Mizote dinhmun atana an suangtuah dan chu an lo sawi fo tawh zâwk a; chu chu he Sub-Committee hnenah hian an thlen ta nghe nghe a ni.

Tin, Pu Laldênga, MNF pawl hruaitu leh India Sawrkar an Inremna Thuthlung a thuchuang pakhat avang hian, Mizoram a hralh ta niin ngaih theih a ni rêng rêng lo. British hun laia Mizoram, India Sawrkarin a chhawm tâk zêl, U.T Sawrkar pawhin a chhawm zui tâk zêl chu Mizoramah a pawm ve a ni tih a tarlang mai a ni. Thil thar engmah a awm lo; thil awmsa kha a rawn pawm mai zâwk a ni.

Hetiang  tak hian Pu R.Thanhlira chuan kum rei tak chhunga kan ram dinhmun khaikhawmna a rawn ziak chhuak a, a tlangkawm nan “Mizoram hralhtu-ah puh tur kan zawng lui tlat dawn a nih chuan, Vailen laia Mizo lalte, Thuthlung chhuan tur engmah awm hauh loa Vailian laka intulût tate kha kan puh tel ve ang em?” a ti nghe nghe a ni.

Chutichuan, kan han sawi tak atanga lo lang ta chu Vailen hnuhnung-a Lushai Hills British ramawp chhunga a lo luh tâk atang khan India rama Assam ram province chhunga District pakhat kan lo ni ta a. Kum 1947 August ni 15 atang phei chuan British ramawp chhunga mi ni tawh lovin India ram liau liau chhunga District pakhat kan ni zui a. Kum 1952-ah Lushai Hills District Council a lo ding a. Kum 1954-ah Lushai Hills District Council tih chu Mizo District Council tiin a hming thlak a ni a. Kum 1947 atanga kum sawmna, kum 1957 kumah khan Assam Legislative Assembly-a kan Mizo MLA te emaw, Mizo District Council-a Members (MDC-te) emaw-in Mizoram hi India rama awm zel tur kan ni dawn lo’m ni ti-a rawtna a awm thar leh ta reng reng lo. Kum 1890 atang khan Lushai Hills District tih hming te, Mizo District tih hming leh Mizoram Union Teritorry tih hming te lo pu tawhin, kum 1987 February ni 20 atangin Mizoram State tih hming pu zui zelin India ramah kan awm ta char char a ni ber mai e. 
 
   
(He thu hi Mizo Students' Union-in June ni 26, 2013-a Aizawl Club-a 'India Union hnuaia Mizoram kan luh dan' tih thupuia hmanga symposium a buatsaiha R. Lallianzuala paper present a ni).
Share:

0 Comment:

Post a Comment

Eng nge i ngaihdân?



Total Pageviews

Followers

Google+ Followers

He blog-a thu leh hlate hi a ziaktu phalna lo chuan engti kawng zawng maha chhuah chhawn phal a ni lo. Chhuah duh i neih chuan ka profile-a email-ah emaw, TS Khupchong link-ah emaw mi rawn contact dawn nia.

Popular Posts (Last 30 Days)

Recent Comments

Blog Archive

Powered by Blogger.

Ka luh ṭhinna