18 July 2013

Tun hnaiah sawrkar hna lak hrang hrangah felhlel a tam ta hle niin a lang a. Hei hi kan ram kalphung ve rëng anga ngaihna pawh a awm ta hial mai. Tun hnaiah MPSC hna lak theih chin chungchangah kan zirlai pawlte atangin dodalna a awm ta hial a. Departmental exam-a hna lak a nih hian duhsak zawngte thunluhna remchang tak a awm thin niin a lang a, hei hi zirlai pawlte duh loh chhan tak pawh niin a lang a. Mizo Students’ Union phei chuan July ni 30-ah Aizawl khawpuiah total bandh huaihawt a tum hial a, heta a hlawhtling lo a nih chuan district headquarters tinah bandh hi neih chhunzawm an tum thu an sawi nghe nghe.

A thawnthu
Kum 1989-a Mizoram Public Service Commission (MPSC) din a nih atang leh, kum 1991-a hna a thawh tan tak tak atanga chhûtin MPSC hna lak theih chin (Limitations of Functions) hi vawi 6 lai siamthata tihdanglam a ni tawh a. Hei hi eng vang nge tih hi zawhna pawimawh tak a ni thei ang. Sawrkar hian an duhsak zawngte sawrkar hnaa thunna remchang an zawng em ni tih mai pawh awl tak tur a ni. Kum 2008 MPSC (limitations of functions) Regulation-ah chuan, sawrkar hna lak reng reng, Group ‘B’ Gazetted leh Non-Gazetted Post chin zawng MPSC kuta dah a ni a, hei hi Mizo thalai, a thiam leh tlingte ngeite sawrkar hnaa an luh ve theih nana a that viau laiin he dân hi kum 2011, May Ni 30-ah sawrkarin a siam danglam leh a. Kum 2011 MPSC (Limitations of Functions) Regulation sawrkar-in a siamthat (ammend)-ah chuan, sawrkar hna lak turah Grade Pay Rs. 4400/- chin MPSC-in hna lakna an kalpui thin chu Gazetted leh Non-Gazetted Post thliar lovin MPSC kut atangin sawrkarin a chhuhsak leh vek a, hei tak hi Mizo thalai hna zawngte tan beidawnna tham a tling. Grade Pay Rs. 4400/- chinah hian hna pawimawh tak tak a tam avangin hei hi ngaihthah mai mai chi a ni lo.

MPSC a tha bik em ni?
Mizo zirlaite zingah graduate leh post graduate hi kum tin sâng têl kan chhuak ve zel a, sawrkar hna inchuhna a lian chho tulh tulh a, hna lak dik lo leh felhlel a huatthlala telh telh bawk a. Chutih laiin deparment-in hna lak a kalpui danah eng party pawh sawrkar se, duhthusam lohna tam tak a awm chhoh tak zel avangin hna lakna tam zawk Mizoram Public Service Commission (MPSC) kuta dah hi Mizo thalai hna zawng mek, hmelhriat tha leh tihpuitu tha nei ve lote tan a him ber niin a lang a. MPSC hna lak zawng zawng hi felfai famkim sawisel bo tihna erawh a ni chuang lo va, zawhna siam chungchangah te pawh eng eng emaw tihsual palh sawi tur chu a awm ve tho mai. Amaherawhchu, MPSC hna lak tawh reng rengah induhsak bik avanga hna lakna kalpui hi sawi tur a vâng khawp mai a, chuvangin duhthusam ni famkim lo mah se department-in hna lakna a kalpui aiin an hna lak chu a felfai zawk tura ngaih a ni hrim hrim a. Chuvangin, hna lak dan dik lo a tlem zawk nan MPSC-in sawrkar hna lakna a tam thei ang ber an kalpui hi a fuh zawk a, zirlaite leh thalai hna zawng mekte duhdan zawk ni pawhin a lang.

Kan tanrual a tul
Sawrkar hna lak reng rengah eng party pawh sawrkar se mimal leh party induhsakna hleihluak tak avanga Mizo thalai, a thiam leh tlingte, hmelhriat tha neih ve loh avanga hnawl an ni fo hi a pawi lungrun a, a thiam leh tlingte hnawl an nih zel chuan, Mizoram hian a la tuar ngei ang tih a lang reng mai. Mizoram sawrkar-in Grade Pay Rs. 4600/- hnuai lam Departmental Exam-a hna lakna a kalpui mekah hian, a thiam leh tling zawkte duhsaktu tha neih loh avanga lak tâk loh an awm thin avangin sawiselna thawm a ri ring hle thin a. Eng sawrkarah pawh, hna laknaah Minister, Department Officers-te leh Party Office zuan khum a harsat thin em avangin sawrkar hna pawimawh Group B, Grade Pay 4400/- chin post pawimawh takte phei hi chu MPSC kuta dah a dik leh felfai taka hna lakna buatsaih hi Mizo thalai hna zawng mekte tan leh Mizoram tan a him ber a ni. Chuvang chuan Group ‘B’ Grade Pay Rs. 4400/- china hna lak awm reng reng, Gazetted leh Non-Gazetted Post huam vekin MPSC kuta dah let leh tura Mizo Students’ Union-in hun rei tak kal ta atanga hma a lo la tawh hi a lawmawm a, a hlawhtlin ngei theih nan Mizo mipuite’n kan thlâwp a tul takzet a ni.

Thalai lehkhathiam lo kan pung a, hna zawng kan tam telh telh a. Hna lak dik lo a huatthlala telh telh a. Mizo thalaite pawh he lamah kan thangharh tan niin a lang a, a lawmawm hle. Dik lo taka hna lak hi a huatthlala em em a, mi’n rim tak leh hah taka kum tam tak an lo sual chhuah tawh thiamna mimal induhsakna avanga inhnâwlsak phei chu a na takmeuh a ni. Tunah phei chuan hna lak chungchanga duhsak zawngte thun thin hi fiamthu-ah tak kan hmang ta hial mai! Hna lak tur thâwm awm ‘Tihpuitu tan lo chuan chance a awm lo’ tih hian a zawm zat thin. A sawi uar deuhte phei chuan ‘Interview & Written Test hmain an la fel vek tawh’ an ti fo!
Hetianga hna lak dik lo hian thil pawi tak a thlen thei a, kan moral pawh a hruai dik lo zo ta a nih ber hi maw! Hna lakah lo pawh, exam leh test a awm reng rengin hmelhriat nei chuan an zar zo kan tum ran a, sawipuitu tur kan dap ruai thin. Hei hi kan moral chhiat tawhzia a lanchhuahna a ni. Hei hi kan tihbo a tul! A tul takzet! Chumi tur chuan, MPSC kuta sawrkar hna a tam thei ang ber dah hi a kawng awlsam a ni. Chumi tur chuan sawrkar a chêt a ngai a, nawrkal ngai sawrkar a nih avangin a nawrkal turin Mizo mipuite inthurual taka kan thawhchhuah a tul hle a ni.

Grade Pay Rs. 4400 chin hna hrang hrang te
 Hna hming - Department 
1. Asst/Steno-II - Common Service 
2. Computer Operator - Common Service 
3. JE - Common Service 
4. Staff Nurse - Common Service
5. Asst. Treasury Accountant - Account & Treasury 
6. Asst. Divisional Accountant - Account & Treasury 
7. Asst. Auditor - Account & Treasury 
8. Jr. Extension Officer - AH & Vety
9. Jr. Farm Manager - AH & Vety
10. Research Investigator - Art & Culture 
11. Inspector of Statistics - Economics & Statistics 
12. Forest Ranger - Environment & Forest 
13. Sub. Inspector - Excise
14. Asst. Supdt. of Accounts - Food, Civil Supply & Consumer Affairs  
15. Inspector of Supplies - Food, Civil Supply & Consumer Affairs
16. Inpector of Legal Metrology - Food, Civil Supply & Consumer Affairs 
17. Technical Asst. - Fisheries 18. Technical Asst. - Health & Family Welfare 
19. Physio Therapies - Health & Family Welfare 
20. Sr. X-Ray Technician - Health & Family Welfare 
21. Sr. Laboratory Technician - Health & Family Welfare 
22. Radio Therapy Technologies - Health & Family Welfare
23. Deputy Librarian - Higher & Technical Education 
24. Sr. Horti Demonstrator - Horticulture 
25. Foreman - Industries 
26. Handloom Officers - Induatries
27. Forensic Science - Police 
28. Sub Inspector - Police 
29. Asst. Jailor - Prison 
30. Depo Manager - Printing & Stationaries
31. Asst. Technical Officer - Printing & Stationaries 
32. Draftmans - Power & Electricity 
33. Revenue Inspector - Revenue 
34. Cartographer/Surveyor-I - Revenue 
35. Train Graduate Teacher - School Education 
36. Seri Extension Officer - Sericulture 
37. Soil Ranger - Soil & Water Conservation
38. Inspector of Taxes - Taxation 
39. Asst. Tourist Officer - Tourism 
40. MVI - Transport
41. Asst. Station Superintendent - Transport

03 July 2013

-Prof.J.V. Hluna
(MSU 28-06-2013; 11 AM Aizawl Club)

(He thu hi Mizo Students' Union-in June ni 26, 2013-a Aizawl Club-a 'India Union hnuaia Mizoram kan luh dan' tih thupuia hmanga symposium a buatsaiha Prof. JV Hluna paper present a ni).

British lawng sipaite’n Spanish indo lawngrual, Invincible Armada an hneh khan an phur thar a. London sumdawng hausa ho chuan India rama bu rawn khuar hi hlawk riau dawnin an ring ta a. East India Company an din a, Queen Elizabeth-i hnen atangin 1600 December 31-ah phalna (charter) an la a. Sumdawng tura lo kal khan ram an la zel a, Lord Dalhousie, Governor General a nih chhung 1848 – 1858 khan India ram pumpui awptu (Paramount Power) an ni ta der mai a.

Kan ram thenawm, Cachar leh Chittagong te, Burma te pawh hemi chhung hian an awp ta vek mai a. Kan pute Sai ram chhuahna ngawpui tha tha chu thingpui huan atan an rawn vat eng ta hum hum mai a. Chu chu ngai thei lovin kan Lalte’n an pasaltha te hruaiin vawi tam tak an run a. Mangang taka an siam avangin inremna siam an duh a, nasataka an dawr hnuah Sapho Aizawlah lo zinin kan pu Suakpuilala nen January ni 16, 1871 khan tuna Millennium Building awmna chhak lam tlang zawlah Saui (Sunnud) an tan ta a, tumah intibuai tawh lo va, a tul anga insumdawn tawn tur leh intanpui zawk turin remna an siam a ni. Hemi kum vek hian Chhim lam Lal Rothangpuia leh Chittagong-a British bawrhsap T.H. Lewin (Thangliana) chuan Tlabungah inthianna thu an thlung bawk a. Heng hi British India nena mumal deuh va thuthlung kan neih hmasak ber a ni a. An awpna hnuaiah kan intulut a ni lo va, intihbuai loh kan intiam tawn mai zawk a ni.[1]

Hemi hnu hian thingpui huan chu kan ram lamah an la rawn zauh lui ta fo mai a. Lal Bengkhuaia pasaltha te chuan an zuk bei let a. January 23, 1871-ah Alexandrapur Thingpui huan Sap, Mr Winchester-a leh a labour engemaw zat an that a, a fanu naupang kum 6 mi lek, Mary Winchester leh midang 37 lai salah an man bawk.[2]

Mizo te awpbeh tula an hriat avangin Vai Lian vawi hnihna chu an rawn thawk leh a, May 1890-ah Capt. Browne leh Suakpuilala thlahte chuan remna an siam a. Fort Aizawl leh Fort Lungleh leh Vanlaiphai-ah Fort Tregear te dinin an awm nghet ta a.[3] Kan Lal tam takte’n ramdang mi hetianga an mahni thu a kan ram an luah ta mai hi an ngaithei lo va, an la indo deuh fo a, mahse a dotu apiang an tlawm zel a. British India Governor General Foreign Department thuchhuah chuan Sept 6, 1895 atangin Mizoram chu British India a nih a puang ta a ni.[4]  Assam Chief Commissioner hnuaiah Superintendent-in a awp ta a.

Mizote’n kan tihbuai tawh loh nana senso tlem thei ang ber a mi awp hi British ho tum dan a ni a, tlangram danga an lo hman tawh, Schedule District Act of 1874 (Act 14 of 1874) chu kum 1898 atangin Mizoramah an hmang nghal a. Vai dangin an duh duh a min tlawhpawh theih loh nan Regulation pahnih – Chin Hills Regulation 1896 (Regulation V of 1896) chu October 11, 1911 atangin, a dawtah Bengal Eastern Frontier Regulation 1873 (Regulation V of 1873) chu an hmang a.[5]

Government of India Act 1919 kum 1921 atanga hman a nih khan Assam chuan Provincial Legislature an nei a, Mizoram leh tlangram dangte chu Backward tract-ah puangin Assam Legislature-ah kan tel ve lo va. Kan hmasawnna a nih beisei a Assam Legislature-a tel ve dil Kulikawn pa ho 1924-a Shillong kal haw pawh Aizawl an lo thlenin an man ta mai a nih kha. Kum 1935-a Government of India Act-in India mite thuneihna sang zawk a pek pawh khan keini chu mahni hmasawnna ngaihtuah thei lo, Excluded Area-ah mi an dah leh ta a. Chu chu Governor General-in-Council  in Assam Governor kaltlangin mi a awp a ni. By Order of the King’s most Excellent Majesty in Council Lushai Hills was declared to be an Excluded Area under the Government of India Act by order 348 Fr. Dated April 15, 1936.[6]

India National Congress-in Independence an sual na telh telh a, British sorkar pawh chuan chu lam hawiin rorelna a kalpui hret hret a. Hemi hre reng hian Assam Governor Sir Robert Reid chu ama bial mi te rilru hre turin a zin kual vel a. Confidential note: “A note on the future of the present excluded and partially excluded and tribal area of Assam”, 7-11-1941 khan a siam a. Chutah chuan a hnuaia bawrhsap pahnih- Dr John H Hutton, C.I.E., rei tak Naga Hills Deputy Commissioner lo ni tawh leh  N.E.Parry ICS, Garo Hills Deputy Commissioner a nih hnua Lushai Hills Superintendent ni mekte’n tribal an hmuh dan chu Reid a ngaihdan nen a thuhmun a ni tih a hriat a. A sawi dan chuan heng tribal te hi ‘Racially, Historically, Culturally and Languistically” in Assam phai mite  nen an danglam a, an inawpna pawh a danglam hlauh bawk a. Chutiang anih a vangin Northeastern Frontier Province hran siam nise, chutah chuan Assam leh Burma-a Backward tracts te hi dahkhawm a, zawi zawia self government or semi-independent emaw a dah a, an external relation chauh Governor kutah dah chi a ni.[7] A footnote-ah chuan a pawimawhna a hrilhfiah a-China leh Japan indo leh II World War 1939 avang hian Northeast Frontier-a chengte hi Tibet, China, Burma leh Japan te nen an inhnaih sawt dawn si a, a ti nghe nghe a ni. Governor ngaihdanah chuan he rawtna hian Lushai Hills te, Chittagong Hills Tract te, tuna Arunachal Pradesh te, Nagaland te, Chin Hills te, Shan State te, Khasi Lalram 25 leh Manipur leh ram la awp loh (unadministered) area ami a huap vek a. Burma ram tel lo pawhin hemi area-ah hian mihring maktaduai 2 leh a chanve vel an awm a ni. Robert Reid-a ngaihdan chuan heng tlangram te hi mahni intodelh vek an ni a, hnatlangin kawnglaih leh leihlawn dawh pawh an ti thei a. Sum an nei lo va, chu chu Imperial Source atangin pek ni se. Burma Frontier service mite administration lam enkawl tir nise, sum leh administration hi India atanga ti lovin British sorkar WhiteHall atang veka enkawl ni se.[8] A ngaihdanah chuan heng lai ram hi Assam Ministry atanga awp chi a ni lo a ni.

Prof. David R. Syiemleih-a sawidanin Sir Robert Reid-a confidential note hian Viceroy, Lord Linlithgow leh L.S.Amery, Secretary of State for India te a thleng thuai a. Amery hian tha a ti hle a, Prof. Reginald Coupland, Law member of British Council hnenah a hlan chhawng a. Chuvangin Crown Colony hi Coupland-a emaw McDonald emaw rawtna a ni lem lo. He rawtna hi JH Mitchell, Chairman Commission on Scheduled Area of Burma chuan a duh ve lo va. L.S.Amery te Lord Wavell leh Sir Reginald Dorman- Smith te’n London-ah an sawiho va, he thu Burma Frontier leh India hmarchhak tribal area suihfin hi 1943-46 thleng khan ngaihtuah a ni a. Ngaihdan tlangpuiah chuan hnam chi khat chu thendarh lo va, awp khata an awm theih dan tur a ramri siam tha an ti a, mah se JP Mills, Adviser to the Governor of Assam chuan Governor-in tribal area leh excluded area te chu ram hranga dah lo va, Assama bei tir chu a ngaihdan a ni tih ziakin a thlen ve leh ta tlat a ni.[9]

Hetiang Crown Colony Plan hian mumal taka sawiho emaw mipui support emaw a hmu lem lo va, Khasa Politician lar ber Rev. J.J.M.Nichols Roy chuan British Cabinet Mission-ah Memorandum theh lutin, Tribal Area leh Excluded Area te hi Protectorate-a dah a nih chuan sum leh paiah an harsa dawn a, India Independent hun chuan Assam hnuaia an awm a rem ber ang a ti a. Jaintia aiawh Rev.L.Gatpoh chuan Jaintia chu protectorate-a a awm tha a a rinthu a sawi a. Garo hruaitu pathum te chuan British Parliamentary delegation hnenah protectorate-a awm ai chuan Assam zawm an duh zawk thu an lo thlen ve bawk a. Naga hruaitute 1945- kum bul lamah Kohima-a kalkhawm chuan British Crown hnuaia awm a, anmahni a Legislative Council neih an duh thu an puang thung a. Mizo hotute (Mizo Union) chuan  Crown Colony emaw Protectorate emaw ai chuan Assam hnuaia Autonomous status –a awm an thlang bawk a.[10]

Indopui II  Nghawng
Indopui pahnihna khan Mizote rilruah hnam rilru putna a chawk tho hle a, Japan-in Burma an la tawh a, Imphal luh an tum a, Mizoram an rawn thleng lek lek tawh bawk a. Superintendent A.G.Macall chuan ‘Total Defence Scheme’ a duang chhuak a. Kum 1942 April thla chuan Mizo Lal zawng zawng Lammualah ko khawmin British tanpui turin a ngen a. A ngenna chu an vaia rem an tih hnu chuan British puanzar (Union Jack) an dinhual a ‘Japan kan do ve’ tiin indo an puang ve ta hial a. Pasaltha pawl A leh B an siam a, Assam Regiment-ah te Burma Army-ah te, India Medical Corp-ah te, Lushai Scout-ah te, Airforce leh Navy-ah te, Auxiliary Nursing Service-ah te an lut bawk a. Mizo 3551 laiin War Service kha an zawm a ni. Mizo tlangval 60 lai Singapore-ah Japan salah an tang ve nghe nghe bawk. Dr. Suhash Chatterjee sawi dan chuan President Roosevelt an February 22, 1942-ah Right to Self Determination a puang a. Hemi hnu lawkah Atlantic Charter-ah he thu bawk hi puan nawn leh a ni a. Mizo lehkhathiam te’n Atlantic Charter te an hre hle a, an sawi an sawi a, a hran ngata Lal hovin Indo an puan avangin hnam hrang – ‘Seperate National Identity’ neia an inhriatna a san phah hle niin a sawi.[11]

Lord Mountbatten leh Cabinet Mission
Indo a lo reh a, India Independent tura inbuatsaihna pawh a kal mup mup bawk a. Hemi chingfel tur hian Prime Minister thar Clement Atlee-a chuan Lalchhungkaw mi Lord Louise Mountbatten chu thuneihna sang tak neiin Governor General atan a rawn tir a. March 22, 1947-ah Delhi-ah a hna a zawm a, Cabinet Mission Plan May 16, 1946-in Mountbatten thurawn an tihchhuah chu India leh Pakistana then bakah India Raja 550 lai Princely State te chu duhthlanna chi thum a pe a, chungte chu:- (i) India Union zawm, (ii) Pakistan Zawm, (iii) Independent-a awm.

Cabinet Mission chuan British India hnena Independent pek a nih chuan Raja (State) te leh British Crown inzawmna chu a awm zui thei dawn lo va, Sorkar thar lo piang tur lo tawiawm mai chu an tih tur nia an beisei thu an sawi a. Cabinet Mission-in ‘Memorandum on States’ an ziak May 22, 1946-ah chuan ‘His Majesty Government a tawp dawn a, heng Raja te hian awm dan tur chu an thlang thei a, mah se British sorkar chuan tumah an zawm tur hmin tumin a sawipui dawn lo. Heng Lalte hi mahni a din an tan a harsat dawn avangin India emaw Pakistan zawm mai hi  an tan a that ber a rinthu Secretary of State-in a sawi.[12]  Cabinet Mission rawtna chu British sorkar hnenah an thawn thla a, India Independent Bill chu an buatsaih a. ‘British sorkar chuan India chu August 15, 1947-ah a chhuahsan ang’ tih a tel a. Chu Bill chu British Parliament-in July 18 1947-ah an pass ta a ni.

Independent Bill thuchhuak angin Northwestern Province leh Syhlet-ah vantlang duhthlanna ‘Referendum’ chu neih a ni a. Pakistan zawm duh an tam zawk avangin, Pakistan-ah an tel ta a. Punjab leh Bengal then chungchangah Boundary Commission din a ni a, Beldevere, Calcutta-ah an thu a. Assam Congress hotute chuan Mizo Union General Secretary Pu H.Vanthuama hnenah thirhrui thawnin ‘Mizo Union-in Pakistan hnuaia awm in duh loh chuan in duh loh thu, Boundary Commission Beldevere-a thukhawm hnenah thirhruiin in hrilh thei ang’ an rawn ti a. Muslim hruaitu Moinul Hug Chowdhury-an Pakistan zawm tura a thlem hle chungin a hmin thei lo va “Mizoram chuan Pakistan hnuaia awm a duh lo” tiin thirhrui an zuk thawn a.[13]

September 2, 1946-ah Governor General chuan India Interim Government chu a la lut a, tah chuan Pu Nehru-a chu Interim Government Vice President-ah dah a ni a. President erawh chu Governor General a la ni. He Interim Government-ah hian Muslim League an tel duh lo va. Heng thu hi Mizo Union pawhin lo hria in hetiang hian hla an phuah a, an sa dul dul thin-.

                Vice President Nehru-a chuan,
                India ram leh Assam hi,
                Zalenna kawng a hawng an ti,
                Vantlang kan hlimtlang ngei e.

August 14, 1947 zan dar 12 chuan Pakistan khawpuiah chuan Pu Jinnah chuan Pakistan Dominion Governor a chelh tan a, Pakistan chu a lo piang ta a.

August 14, 1947 zan vek hian India Constituent Assembly member te chu Delhi-ah an inkhawm a, India Union Dominion Governor General atan Lord Louise Mount Batten chu an ruat a, Sovereignty chu a la nghal a. A tuk zingah Governor General chuan  Pandit Jawarhar Lal Nehru chu India Union Dominion Prime Minister hmasa ber atan a ruat fel leh ta a.

Aizawl khawpui-ah chuan thuneihna te engmah a danglam chuan loh avangin engmah tih vak a awm lo. Superintendent Office-ah pawh India Flag tar a awm chuang lo va. Bawrhsap chuan India Flag a tar lohna chhan chu India Flag a lo neih loh vang niin a sawi. Mizo then khat chuan Kawngzawh turin rawtna an siam a. Mahse Aizawl mi then khat te’n an ngaihthiam loh em avangin kawngzawh chu tih a ni ta lo. Mizo Union Office bul velah mi tlem te chu an thukhawm awm e.

Bordoloi Sub Committee
Constituent Assembly of India chuan January 25, 1947 –ah Advisory Committee on Minorities and Tribal Areas, etc. an siam a. Chairman-ah Sardar Valladhai Patel an ruat a, chu Committee chuan Sub Committee an ruat leh chhawng a, Chairman ah Gopinath Bordoloi an ruat a. Northeastern Tribal Area leh Excluded & Partially Exluded Area chungchang ngaihtuah tura din a ni. He Sub Committee hian Vote nei lo, Co-Opted member atan Pu Ch.Saprawnga leh Pu Khawtinkhuma, Mizo Union ve ve chu an ruat a.

Mizo Union a lo din khan an duh dan a khal nghal hle a. An General Assembly neih hmasak ber Boys ME School-ah September 24-26 1946 khan ‘Mizo Lal te thuneihna hlihsak’ tih leh ‘India Independent hunah Mizoram chu Assam-a beh nise, Legislative Assembly-ah Member pathum neih ni bawk se’ tih resolution an siam nghal hmiah a. Hemi hma May 25, 1946-ah an conference (Assembly ni lo) hmasa ber an neihah ‘Mizo Union chauh hi Mizo mipui aiawhtu an nih avangin an remtihna la hmasa lovin tuman engmah tih a rem lo’ tih resolution an siam tawh bawk a.

November 7, 1946-a District Conference chuan Mizo Union Resolution hi an helh hle an Bawrhsap pawhin a helh a, Mizoram aiawh diktak nei turin Bawrhsap McDonald-a chuan District Conference a bialtin aiawh tur thlan that a rawt a. Mizo Union chuan he inthlan hi a boycot a, Lal leh hnam chawm member inzat neih an duh lo va, hnamchawm aiawh member an tam zawk tur a ni an ti a ni. Union-in an boycot chung hian April ni 9-ah Aizawlah, April 14-ah Lunglei-ah inthlan a awm ta tho va. Mizoram-a aiawh roreltu thlanna hmasa ber a ni ta a ni.

District Conference April 16, 1947 a thukhawm chuan Bordoloi Sub Committee hmu turin mi 5 an ruat a, chungte chu:- Rev. Liangkhaia, Rev. Zairema, Lalkailuia Sailo, R.Vanlawma leh Pi Lalziki Sailo te an ni. Sub Committee hi April ni 17 1947-ah Aizawl an lo thleng a. Sub Committee rual hian Sir B.N.Rao,ICS, Constitutional Adviser, Constituent Assembly of India pawh Mizoram hmu duhin an lokal ve a. District Conference aiawh hi Mipui aiawh an ni lo tiin an hmu duh lo va. Superintendent in nasa taka a sawisel a vangin an hmu duh ta hram a. April 19 chuan Sub Committee leh Co-Opted Member te District Conference aiawh te chu Circuit House Drawing Roomah dawhkan lianpui kilin an thu kual thap mai a. District Conference thu thlen te chu:- (1) Legislature hrang hranga Mizoram aiawh thlan dan tur engtin nge. (2) District Conference hian  Assam Legislature zawm turin thu tlukna a la siam lo. (3) Provincial Service hna lak dawn reng rengin Fair and Open Competition-a lak ni thin rawh se. (4) Ram neitu nihna te, Agriculture leh Social Custom lam reng reng chu Mizoram tualchhung sorkar thu ni rawh se. (5) Ram pawn lam atanga Mizoram pem lutte chung thu chu Local Body thu a ni tur a ni. (6) Misual hremna, Civil and Criminal, chu thihna thu thlengin Zoram pawn atanga rel theih a ni lovang. (7) Advisory Sub Committee-a Co-Opted Member Khawtinkhuma leh Saprawnga dah hi tumah rawn lova tih a nih avangin paih leh ni rawh se, tih te an ni.[14]

Member dang A.V.Thakar chuan Mizoram  nen tun hmain inhriat pawh turin remchang kan la nei lo va, kan inkarah chhum pui zing angin daidanna a awm thin avangin kan inhre riai ruai a, nakin lawkah innel takin kan la thawkho ang chu, tiin a sawi ve a.

Rev. Zairema chuan ‘In thu rawnken hi a lian hle si a, hetiang hun chepah chuan ngaihdan pawh kan sawi thei lo, chumi ngaihtuah turin hun rei deuh kan la duh ang. A reng rengah India Union zawm ve nghal mai turah min ngai mai niin alang a, chumi awmzia chu duhthlan theihna kan nei lo em ni?’ a ti a. Pi Lalziki pawh chuan ‘India Union kan zawm duh leh duh loh in hre duh a ni maw?’ a lo ti bawk a. Sir B.N.Rao chuan ‘British India zawng zawng chu India Union a lut vek tura tih a ni a, kawng dang thu ken kan nei lo. India ramchhunga in dinhmun tur sawipui tur che u in kan lokal mai a ni. In ram tan India zawm hi a that ber ka ring’, a ti a.[15]

Lalho aiawh Pu Kailuia chuan ‘Hmanlai kumpinu lo luh hma daih atanga tun thlengin Lal kan ni a, hun inher thar zelah pawh kan Lal zawm zel tur niin kan ngai a. Chu chu ka sawi duh ber a ni’, a ti a.

Mizo Union hotute an lo lut ve leh a, chungte chu:- Pu H.Vanthuama, Pu Lalbuaia, Pu R Dengthuama te an ni. An memorandum ziaksa an President Pu Khawtinkhuma leh an General Secretary Pu H.Vanthuama te hming ziakna chu an thehluhin an sawiho nghal a. An thu thehluh tlangpui chu:

1) Mipui thlan District Council awm se la.
2) Mizorama Vai lo lut danna dan te, ram leilung enkawl leh cheibawlnaa thuneihna te, thu chhe rem thu te Council kutah awm se la.
3) ‘Lushai’ tih leh ‘Lushai Hills’ tih chu ‘Mizo’ tih leh ‘Mizoram’ tia thlak vek ni se.
4) Assam Province chhungah Mizoram-in full determination neih ni se.
5) Central Sorkar-in kumtin tangka tanpuina a bikin pe thin se la.
6) Vantlang rorelna dik tak awm rawh se.
7) Assam Legislative Assembly-ah Mizoram-in aiawh neih ve ni rawh se, tihte an ni.

A hnuhnung ber atan April 19, 1947 tlai lamah Bawrhsap Mc Donald-a chu Sub Committee hmaah a lang ve thung a. Chairman Bordoloi chuan ‘Kan thu zawh che kha i ngaihtuah tawh em? Mizo te hi India ramah tel lo ta se, i ngaihdanin Hnam fingte angin an inenkawl theiin i ring em?’ a han ti a. McDonalda chuan ‘an theih loh leh Burma an zawm mai ang chu’ a ti awl then a. A sawi chhunzawm a, ‘Mizo te hian an tualchhung in enkawlna zawng zawng, tualthah thuchhia thlengin thu neihna nei sela, an inenkawl nan Central Sorkar-in cheng 4,00,000/- vel kum tin pe thin se la, a tha maithei’ a ti zui. Khawtinkhuma leh Saprawnga awm ve reng chu ngaimawhin  ‘Heng naupang pahnih, pawl pakhat chauh aiawh engtizia nge an thut ve reng? Mizoram aiawh dik tak chu District Conference te hi an ni si a’, a ti a. Chairman chuan Mizo Union chauh hi Political Party kan rawn hriat chhun an ni, chhim bial leh hmar bial aiawh kan ruat mai a ni. Eng pawh ni se mi hrang hrang thusawi kan ngaithla tho alawm. Chuvangin hemi thuah hian inhnial buai a ngai lo,’ a ti a. Mimalin Pu R.Thanhlira te, Pu HK Bawihchhuaka te, Pu Lalbiakthanga te pawh an hmu a, an thusawi chu India Union zawma Assam Legislative Assembly-a aiawh neih leh Autonomy zau thei ang ber neih a ni vek a.[16]

August 14, 1947 chuan Superintendent L.L.Peters-a chairman-na hnuaiah Mizo Leaders mi 50 meeting a awm a. Meeting chuan Mizo te hian India zawm emaw Burma zawm emaw Pakistan zawm emaw hi duh kan thlang thei reng em tih sorkar-ah zawh ni se. India-ah kan lut dawn a nih chuan heng a hnuaia mi ang hi kan awm duh dan a ni.

1) Mizo Customary Law hman lai leh ramchhunga Mizo te thuneihna hi chhunzawm ni se.
2) Tuna Lushai Hills-a hman mek Regulations te hi hman zui zel ni rawh se.
3) Kum 10 hnuah India atanga chhuah an duh chuan phalsak ni rawh se.[17]

Heng bakah hian Foreign Affairs, Currency leh Communication tih loh thil dang chu Local Council kutah awm vek tih te an sawi bawk a. Saprawnga sawi dan chuan Mizoram Independent emaw Crown Colony emaw a awm dawn chuan an do ber Lal neih chhunzawm zel kha a kawk a, chung ai chuan India Union zawm a, Lal ban kha kan duh zawk a ni, a ti.[18]

Bordoloi Sub Committee chu April 20, 1947-ah an hawng a. Mizo Union chuan an lo rel tawh dung zuiin  draft Constitution an siam a. Chu leh an Memorandum chu Bordoloi Sub Committee-ah an thawn a, annin Constituent Assembly-a lo thawn turin an ngen nghal bawk a. Chungte chu

1) India Independent hunah Mizoram chu Assam-ah a bei ang.
2) Mizoramin Legislative Council member 27 awmna a nei ang.
3) Mizo ni lo Candidate an ni thei lovang.
4) National Court –‘ Mizoram High Court’ tia vuah chu Mizoramah a awm ang.
5) Provincial Legislation rorel chu Mizo National Council-in a pawm chauhin Mizoramah hman theih a ni ang.
6) Heng a chunga sawi zawng zawng hi kum 10 hnuah en thata tihdanglam leh theih vek an ni ang.

Governor Chhanna
Bawrhsap L.L.Peters-a ho Mizo Leader 50 leh Mizo Union Memorandum Governor of Assam-in a rawn chhang a. Letter No.7629 – 30 G of 02-09-1947-ah chuan hetiang a ziak a:-

1) Lushai ho hi Assam hnuaia Excluded Area a nih tawh avangin India Union atangin a chhuak thei lo vang.
2) Lushai te chu India Union-a awm an nih avangin Pakistan emaw Burma emaw a zawm thei lovang.
3) Constitutional Provision kan sawi tak pahnih en hian kum 10 hnua India Union atanga chhuah leh pawh a theih loh.[19]

Pu Vanthuama chuan Kum 1946 tawp lam khan British Parliament-ah hetiang zawhna hi a lo awm a, ‘British Sorkar-in India a chhuahsan dawn chuan khing hnam hnufual tribal Christian te khi humhalhna siamsak lohvin in kalsan mai dawn em ni?’ tih a ni a. British Sorkar chuan ‘Chung ang chu venhimna bik pek dan ngaihtuah a ni ang’, tiin chhan a ni.[20] Mahse hetiang engmah a awm ta chuang lem lo a ni.

Prof. David Syiemlieh-a‘n Pethick Lawrence-a thuziak a lakchhawn-ah chuan, Prime Minister Clement Atlee, Labour Sorkar thar programe-ah India Independent pek bak a lan loh avangin India ramchhung la hek a, hmarchhak tribal tana Crown Colony siam hi a lang pha lo va, a hun enin a tlai lutuk tawh bawk a, India hruaitute’n an duh loh zawng tak a lo ni bawk si. Hmarchhak tlangmite tana Crown Colony siam tumna lam hawi chi reng reng chu Assamese Politiciante’n an ngawihpui hmiah a, khawih chet loh turin  an dahtha hmiah mai a ni. Tlang mite rilru-ah erawh chuan 1947 – 1950 thleng khan beiseina a la awm reng a ni.[21]

Burma Zawm Duh
Mizo Union-in India hnuaia luh an tum ruh em em laiin Crown Colony-a awm duh an tangrual a, Mizo Union nen an inkalh ta hle mai a. Lalho leh Crown Colony-a awm duh ho chuan Political Party thar United Mizo Freedom Party an tih chu July 5, 1947-ah an din ta a.[22]  Lalbiakthanga M.A. chu an President hmasa ber a ni a, rei lo teah Sorkar hna ah luhsan a. Lalmawia,Burma Army Officer Pension chu President-ah an thlang ta a. Lalmawia chuan Falam Lal Zahreliena leh Burma Cabinet Minister U Nu te thurual puiin Mizoram chu Burma zawm turin a Campaign ta a. India zawm ai chuan kan unau Chin Hills ami te nena Burma zawm chu a nuam zawk ang a, Burma Constitution draft-ah chuan kum 10 hnuah hei pawh hi enthat leh theih a ni ang, a ti a ni. Hnamah Burma chu kan laichin hnai zawk a, chanvo pawh kan nei sangt thei zawk ang, a ti a. Zahreliena nen Burma Prime Minister U Nu pawh an sawipui bawk a.[23] Pu Vanlawma sawi danin UMFO leh Mizo Union Right Wing (Lalhema Pawl) tangkawp leh Mizo Union inkar chu a chhe ta hle a. India Independence Day niin Mizo Union-in kawngzawh an tum a, UMFO-in dan an tum a. Second World War zawh hlim a nih avangin Silai leh Grenade te atam a, hman an hnial lo tih a hriatin Mizo Union President chuan thisen a luang vak mai ang tih a hlau a, a pawl te chu kawngzawh thulh turin a ngen a, an zawh luih chuan President anihna atangin a ban phah hial dawn a ni tiin a vau a, kawngzawh chu an thulh thei ta hram a ni.[24]

District Advisory Council
Constituent Assembly Advisory Sub Committee thutkhawm hnuhnung ber chu July 4, 1947-ah a awm a. Mizoram tan Vantlang rorelna sang tak, Autonomous District Council chu Recommend mahse India Constitution pumpui siam zawha nemngheh hnua la hman chauh tur a ni si a. Chumi hmaa ro lo rel tur District Advisory Council neih chu Mizo Union-in an rawt a. Assam Premier, G.M.Bordoloi hnena bawhzui turin R.Thanhlira, R.Dengthuama, Vanchuanga leh HK Bawihchhuaka te Shillong-ah an tir a. Governor chuan Superintendent L.L.Peters te, Lal aiawh te, Zalen Pawl aiawh te, Sipai bang aiawh te, Shillong-ah a ko thla bawk a. Heng hotute hi November 10, 1947-ah Governor inah Mizo Union hotute nen inbiakna an neia . Governor leh Premier Bordoloi leh PWD Minister J.J.M.Nichols Roy te an tel bawk a. Mizo Union aiawh chu kan sawi tawh te hi an ni a. Lal aiawh te chu Lalsailova Sailo, Awksarala Sailo leh Ngura Sailo te an ni. Sipai Bang aiawh  chu Jem.R.Zuala a ni. L.L.Peters, Mizoram Bawrhsap leh Governor Advisor for Tribal and Excluded Area, C.E.D.Walker te pawh an tel.

An inremna tlangpui te chu:- Aiawh roreltu 37 thlan a ni ang a, Mipui thlan mi 20, Lal aiawh 10, Aizawl khawpui aiawh 3, Lunglei khawpui aiawh 2, Aizawl khawpui hmeichhe aiawh 1, Lunglei khawpui hmeichhe aiawh 1 te an ni ang.

Heng thlan tlin mi 37 inkhawmna hmasa ber hi August 16, 1948-ah bawrhsap Office-ah an nei a. Bawrhsap-in chair a la mai tur chu Saprawnga’n a sawisel a, ‘Kalkhawmte’n Chairman kan thlang tur a ni’ a ti a. H.Vanthuama’n a rawn pui bawk si a, an pamtul thak a. Governor an rawn a. Superintendent L.L.Peters-a chu Chairman tur a ni a tih avangin 7/8/1948-ah an thu leh a. Union ho chuan thu tlukna siam turin vote lak thin ni se an tih chu an inhnial fe hnuah an pawm a. An sawi ho tur Governor atanga Draft Regulation phek 17 lai English Copy chu an han sem a. Union ho chuan ‘Saptawng thiam lo kan tam si a, a zir pawh kan la zirchiang hman lo va, zotawnga lehlin phawt a, ngaihtuah that leh ni rawh se, ‘ tih an rawt a. Bawrsap chuan ni 7 chhung lehlin nan hun a pe a. Ni 7 a ral hnu chuan August 24th 1947-ah a hmun ngaiah bawk an thu leh a. Union ho chuan ‘Zirchian phawt a, kan mite pawh rawn kan duh a, thla hnih khat hun min pek belh rawh,’ an ti leh a. Chairman-in rem a tih loh avangin Union ho chu an chhuak tau a, an inkhawm leh thei ta lo va. Hemi kar hian Bawrhsap chuan lo neih tur ram thet chu tihdan pangaiin Lal leh upa ‘ram hual’  neiin a theh ta a.

Governor Adviser N.K.Rustumji, ICS a rawn zin a, a ho chuan August 31, 1948-ah an thukhawm ta a. Mizo Union rawtna chu a tlangpui thu-a pawm a ni a. Governor Adviser Rustumji-a chu la chama amah ngeiin heng advisory Committee pumpui thut theih loh laia lo kengkawhtu tur Sub Committee Secret Ballot-a thlan an dil a. September 3, 1948 chuan Sub Committee an thlang ta a. Chungte chu

1. R.Thanhlira    
2. Ch.Saprawnga              
3. H.Vanthuama               
4. Lalsawia          
5. Ngura te an ni.

R.Thanhlira chu Secretary atan ruat a ni a. Chairman neih rih loh ni se an ti a.

Mizo Union chuan Bawrhsap L.L.Peters chu Lal lam tan ema an hriat avangin amah do nan nawrh an huaihawt a. Peters chu December 28, 1948 hmain a hawng ngei tur a ni, an ti a. Kawng te an zawh a. An hotu eng emaw zat chu an man a, Tezpur Jail-ah pathum an tang a, Aizawl Jail-ah eng emaw zat an tang bawk a. Heng te hi Assam Maintenance of Public Order Act 1947 Section 2-na hmanga man an ni. Governor Adviser, Rustumji bawk a rawn zin chho leh a. Nawrh ti tawp turin a ngen a. Tihtawp an intiam avangin Jail tang zawng zawng pawh a chhuah nghal a ni.[25]

An lo rel lawk tawh avangin District Advisory Committee chu Mizo Union aiawh te, Lal aiawh te, UMFO aiawh te, Hmeichhe aiawh te, thlana buatsaih fel a nih chuan Assam Chief Minister Gopinath Bordoloi chuan July 24, 1950-ah a rawn hawng ta a. Sixth Schedule tha tak hnuaiah rorelna siam sak an nih tur thu te a sawi a. Pu Ch.Saprawnga chu Member of Parliament-a ruat a ni thu te a han sawi chuan mipui chu an lawm em em a. Kut an beng dur dur mai a ni.

Pu H Vanthuama sawi danin Assam Gazette Extra-ordinary Dated January 25, 1950-ah Excluded Area kan nihna paih a ni.[26] July 24, 1950 District Advisory Committtee hawn ni hi nge Excluded Area kan nihna paih ni January 25, 1950 hi Mizo te’n India Union kan zawm niah a ngaih theih ang chu.

India Constitution a pumpui a pawm (adopt) ni chu October 26, 1949 a ni a, District Council ruangam tur an tih fel ni pawh ni ngeia ngaih a ni. District Advisory Committee chu November 5, 1951-ah thiah a ni thung a. Sixth Schedule hnuaia District Council inthlan chu April 4, 1952-ah kan nei a. Assam Assembly-a kan aiawh, MLA 3 thlan chu January 5, 1952-ah kan nei bawk a. Kan District Council chu Assam Chief Minister,Bishnu Ram Medhi-a’n April 25, 1952-ah a rawn hawng a. Sum nei lo va bul tan kan ni a. Prime Minister Jawahar Lal Nehru, April 1953-ah a rawn zin a,Reid House ah thu a sawi a, Council bul tanna turin 1952-53 Budget atan Rs 17,175 a pe a.

Mizo Union thupui ber kha Lal ban a nih avangin District Council-ah sorkarna an chang ta bawk a, an hna hmasa berah Lal ban Assam sorkar-ah an nawr a, Lushai Hills (Acquisition of Chief’s rights) Act 1954 Assam Sorkar-in a passed a. August 16, 1954-ah Mizo District Council huam chhunga Lal 259 ban an ni a. April 15, 1956-ah P.L.Region huam chhunga Lal 50 ban an ni ta bawk a. Village Council thlan hmasak ber July 24, 1954-ah neih a ni a. Mizo Union-in Village Council leh District Council rorelna an la fai vek a. Lal banin India hnuaia rorelna  nghet takin kan tel ta a ni.

Lehkhabu rawnte

English

1.       Making of India Union: Merger of Princely States and Excluded Areas. Edited by Sajal Nag, Tejimala Gurung, Abnijit Choudhury. Published by Aansha Publishing House, New Delhi 110002, 12 June 2007.
2.       History & Ethnic Identity Formation in Northeast India (ed) J.V.Hluna. Published by Concept Publishing Company (P) Ltd. New Delhi 110059, 2013.
3.       Church & Political Upheaval in Mizoram: John Van Lal Hluna, published by Mizo History Association, 1985.
4.       Problem of Peace Making in Mizoram, Lal Hmingthanga (ed) J.V.Hluna, published by Concept Publishing Company (P) Ltd., New Delhi 110059, 2013.
5.       Hill Politics in Northeast India, S.K.Chaube, published by Orient Black Swan, Third Edition, 2012.
6.       Autonomy Movement in Mizoram (ed) R.N.Prasad, published by Vikas Publishing House Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi -110014, 1994.
7.       Mizoram, Animesh Ray, published by National Book Trust, New Delhi, 1993.
8.       Golden History of Lushai Hills, Keihawla Sailo, 2010.
9.       N.Mansergh (ed) The Transfer of Power, 1942 – 1947, VOL II, No. 303, New Delhi, 1978

Mizo
1.       Mizoram Politics Chanchin, H.Vanthuama, published by Ms Vanlalmawii, 2001.
2.       Political History of Mizoram, Chaltuahkhuma, 1981.
3.       Political History of Mizoram, V.H. Khuma, published by 3J Publication, 1999.
4.       Mizo Chanchin, Zatluanga, published by Art & Culture Deptt., GOM, 1996.
5.       Ka Ram leh Kei, R.Vanlawma, published by MC Lalrinthanga, 1989.
6.       Mizo Chanchin, Rev. Liangkhaia, published by LTL Publications, 2002.
7.       Zoram Politics Thli Tleh Dan VOL I, C.Hermana, 1999.

Record
1.       India Office Library and Records, London.
[1] Prof J.V.Hluna (ed) Problem of Peace Making in Mizoram, pp. 134-136.
[2] Zatluanga: Mizo Chanchin p.176
[3] Liangkhaia: Mizo Chanchin P.149
[4] Animesh Ray: Mizoram p.147
[5] Sangkima: The Process of Merger of Mizo Hills with India in the Book “Making of India Union: Merger of Princely & Excluded Areas, Edited by Sajal Nag and others. P.214.
[6] H.Vanthuama: Mizoram Politics Chanchin, p.2
[7] Indian Office Literacy & Records, London L/P&S 12-3115A, The Notes Dt. 7.Nov.1941.
[8] Ibid pp.3-4.
[9] Syiemlieh: op. cit. pp 244-245
[10] Syemlieh: ibid.
[11] Dr. Suhash Chatterjee: Minority Nationalities of NE India: The Mizos in the Book ‘History & Ethnic Identity Formation in Northeast India Edited by Prof. J.V.Hluna p 106.
[12] N.Mansergh (ed): The Transfer of Power, (1942-1947, Vol 11. No. 303, New Delhi 1978, p. 262 pp. 586, 522-524 quoted by Syemlieh p. 182.
[13] H.Vanthuama, April. pp. 8-11.
[14] Sangkima: pp. 219-220.
[15] Vanthuama: op cit pp. 63-69
[16] H.Vanthuama: op. cit.
[17] Ibid.
[18] Saprawnga Ch.: Factors contributing to the Mizo Problems; Tribal Mirror; Karimganj, 1967, VOL III qouted by Zochungnunga in the book ‘Making of the Indian Union’ (ed) Sajal Nag and others p. 207.
[19] Sangkima: op.cit. p.224.
[20] H.Vanthuama: op.cit p.36.
[21] Syemlieh: op cit. p.247.
[22] Animesh Ray: Mizoram, pp. 152-153.
[23] Sangkima: op cit. pp.223.
[24] R.Vanlawma: Ka ram leh kei pp. 162-163.
[25] H.Vanthuama: op cit. pp. 143-155.
[26] H.Vanthuama: op cit. pp. 166-169.
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