24 June 2014

A hmasain kan khuallian zahawm tak, FIFA President Sepp Blatter leh a thawhpui te, he lai hmuna inkhel tur leh a en tura khawvel hmun hrang hranga infiammite chibai ka buk a che u.

Hei, Brazil hian kum 1950 khan World Cup kan lo thleng tawh a, kumin hi a tum hnih thlenna tur a ni a. World Cup kan thlen theih nan kan Sports Minister Aldo Rebelo hian theihtawp a chhuah a, chu mai ni lovin infiammite'n khelmual tha an neih theihna turin a hmalakna avangin khelmual thar hlak eng emaw zat siam a ni ta a. Infiammite hian kan Sports Minister chak tak Aldo Rebelo chunga lawmthu sawi kan ba nasa hle a ni.

The Workers' Party-in sawrkarna a chan atangin infrastructure tha tak tak kan nei chho ta zel a, kan President Dilma Rousseff kaihhruaina hnuaiah Brazil hian nasa takin hma a sawn chho zel a ni. Ani hi hmeichhia a ni na vang vangin inthlan hnuhnung ber khan a khingpui lian ber Socialist People's Party candidate Jose Serra khan a titla thei ta lo a ni.

Tin, tunah hian Brazil hian hmachhawp lian tak tak kan nei a, tun World Cup-a kan champion leh a nih chuan kan vawi 5 champion-na tur a ni tawh dawn a, a lawm nan ram pumin office chawlh kan puang dawn a, ruaithehin kan lawm mup mup dawn bawk a ni.

Tun hmain kan pasaltha Pele te, Garrincha te, Jairzinho te, Zico te, Socrates-a leh midang dangte chuan Brazil tan theihtawp an lo chhuah tawh a, tun angin infiamna hmunhma changkang kan la nei lo chungin Brazil chu thang an lo chhuahpui tawh a ni. Vawiinah erawh chuan kan infiammi duhawm tak takte hi in vannei tawh a, kan sawrkar chak takin hmunhma tha leh hmanrua tha tak tak a pe tawh che u a, tumruhna nena beih hi in tih tur a ni.

Infiammi ni tur chuan zûk leh hmuam leh ruihtheihthila fihlim nih a ngai a, chumi ni tur chuan kan beisei che u. Brazillian nu leh pate paw'n nangmahni-ah rinna an nghat a, in theihtawpin in bei tur a ni. Tumruhna nena beih chuan theih loh a awm ngai lo.

World Cup-a khel tura team inpet tling zawng zawngte ka lawmpui che u a, a tling zo lote pawh beidawng mai lova bei hram hram turin ka fuih che u a, tlin ni in la nei ngei ang tih ka ring tlat a ni.

World Cup khel tur zawng zawngte hlim leh lawm taka khelmual tha taka inkhela inhliam lova tluang taka khel turin ka duhsak che u a, in zavaiin champion theuh turin duhsakna ka hlãn a che u.

Ka lawm e.

16 June 2014

Chakma chanchin hi chipchiar takin kan tar lang lo vang a, Mizoram-a an lo luh dan leh chumi kaihhnawih lam tar lan kan tum dawn a ni. Chutih rualin, an hun hmasa lam pawimawh zual tlem han zep tel hram ila a tha awm e.

AN HUN HMASA LAM
 Chakmaho hi Mongolian thlah an ni a, Tibeto-Burman emaw, Mon Khmer emaw, Tai-Shan pawla mite an nih rin a ni. China atangin Assam ramah, chuta tangin Burma-ah an lut thla a, hetih lai hi BC 903 vel a ni. Zawi zawia Irrawady luipui dung zawh thlain Arakan bial an thleng an thleng a, hetah hian hun eng emaw chen an inbengbel a. Arakan an luh hun hi AD 10 vel niin ziaktu thenkhat chuan an tar lang. He hmun, Arakan-a an awm lai hian hnam angin an lo ding chhuak niin a lang.

Ziaktu thenkhat tar lan danin, hetih lai vel hian Burma ram chu hmun thumah then a ni a, bial khat chu Chakma lal hnuaia dah a ni. Chakmaho hian Arakan-a an awm lai hian AD 1118-ah lal an lo nei tawh a ni. Arakan atang hian khawthlang lam hawiin Bangladesh Chittagong tlangram leh tuipui kam an zuan a; he hmunah hian kum 100 chuang fe lal neia tuma tihbuai lohva an awm avangin anmahni pawhin an ram (motherland)-ah an pawm a ni.

Lal nei mah se, kum zabi 13-na vela Muslim-ho an lo len hnu khan an chunga thuneitu an awm ta a. Hetih lai hian Buddhist sakhaw vuantu an ni tawh a, Muslim lo lian hian eng emaw chenah anmahni a nghawng vein a rinawm. British lo len thleng khan Sangu leh Feni lui inkar an awp a, chu chu tuna Bangladesh ram chhûng vek a ni. Kum zabi 18-na lai vel khan Chakma hnam zinga tam tak chu Tripura-ah an pêm a, a then Mizoram-ah lutin Tripura-a tlang thla pawl an awm a, Arunachal Pradesh an thleng thla bawk.

MIZO LALTE CHAKMA DO THU
 Mizo lalte khan ralthuam duh vang te, sum leh pai duh vang te, hnam dangin an ram an nêk vang te leh thil dang dang vang tein an chhehvela chêngte an rûn fo va. Assam vaiho bakah Chakma leh Tuikukte pawh an lo rûn fo tawh a ni.

Kum 1864 kum tawp lam khan Shendu-ho (Mara or Lai) te chuan Chittagong tlangram chu tum hnih an bei a, a tum khatnaah mi 6 an man a, a tum hnihnaah mi 20 an man bawk.

Kum 1870 kum tir lam khan Thangluah lal Rothangpuia chuan Chittagong tlangrama Chakma lal Loll Khan-a khua a rûn a, khua a tihchhiatsak vek a, sum tam taka tlan atan Loll Khan-a silai pahnih leh an lal fapate pathum a mansak a. Lal fapa pakhat hi tlànchhuakin sum tlem azawng an inpek hnuah lal fapa pahnih dangte a chhuah leh a ni. Tin, kum 1871 kum tir lam khan Lalburha hovin Langkaih dung leh a chhehvela chêng Chakma leh Tuikuk chênna khua an rûn a, mi eng emaw zat an that a ni.

Kum 1886-ah Laihovin (Hausata hote an ni maithei) Chittagong tlangrama Chakmaho vek chu an rûn a, mi pahnih thatin midang pathum an hliam bawk. Kum 1888 khan anni vek hian Chittagong Hill Tract-a Chakma lalnu Prankyne Raja khua an rûn leh a, mi 6 thatin pahnih an hliam a, salah mi 23 an hruai haw a ni.

MIZORAM LEILUNG AN RAH TAN DAN
Mizoram-ah vailen vawi khatna a lo thleng a, kum 1872-ah British-ho Mizo lalte hrem tura an lo kal khan Chittagong Hill Tracts-a Chakma lalnu Kalindi Rani chuan British sipaite hi thuamphur tur kuli mi 500 zet a pe a, hengho hi Chakma zinga Mizoram rawn rap hmasa berte an ni. Chakma lalnuin British sipaite tana kuli a pek avangin a ram bial chhûnga a chhiah chawi tur pawh tihtlemsak a ni.

Chakma lalnuin British sipaiho a puih chhan hi Luseihovin Chakma khua leh tui an rûn thin vang a ni a, he laia hnam dang lo awm vete hmehmihna a nih ringin a pui a ni. Hetih lai hian tuna Kawrpui (Thega) lui thlang lam tlang dung zawng zawng hi Lusei lalram vek a la ni.

British hovin Tlabung, Rothangpui ram chhûnga awmhmun an khuar tâk hnu hian heng kuli mi 500 zet chu an lêt leh a. Heta kuli lo kalte atang hian Tlabung thlang lam Kawrpui lui kam vel ngawpui chu thing leh mau lâk nan leh lawng tuk tur thing tamna a ni tih an hria a; Mizoram chhûngah British-hovin Mizo lalte an tukdawl zawh hnuah Mizo lal hlauh tur an awm tawh lo tih hriain Kawrpui lui an rawn nêk chho tan ta a ni.

Mizoram chhim lam hi British hovin Bengal atanga Assam-a bet tura an tih kum, 1900 atang khan a ramri chin tur hi khawthlang lamah Tlanglau leh Pang lalte ram china siam lovin Rothangpuia ram chinah ramri siam a ni a, tuna Kawrpui leh Sazuk luiah rîn a lo ni ta a. Sazuk lui hnar kinah Mauzam ram zawnah tlang lawn liamin, Sazuk tuipui hnar a zawh chho leh a; Lawngkawr, Mahmuam vela Mizo lalte chu Chakma leh Mong Raja hnuaiah dah an lo ni ta a ni. Heta tanga thil lo lang chiang em em mai chu, Chakma lal khan Mizoram chin hi vawi khat mah a ramah a rîn lut ngai lo va, mahse, British lo kal hnu atangin an rawn lut tan a ni tih hi a ni.

MIZORAM-AH AN CHENG TAN 
Hetianga Chakmaho Mizoram chhunga an rawn luh tan hian Mizo lal thenkhatte chuan chhiah lakna atana duhin an ramah an lo chêntir mai niin a lang. Lunginkhar lal Pu Zakhupa’n a pa ram Muallianpui leh Ngharum tlang luah tura a kal rualin a Chakma thian thenkhatte a rawn chhohpui a, tuna Sakhai (Borapansuri)-ah a dah hlawm a ni.

Chakmaho Mizoram chhunga rawn pêm luta an inkhuar tan tak takna hi kum 1905 vel a ni. Samakkah lui (Gerauluksora) leh Lamthai (Tablabagh) velah an rawn kal tan a. Hetih lai hian Mizo lam ram ni mah se Mizote kan la thâwl tho avangin an chhiah lakna khua turin an la lut a ni. Tiante lal Lianhnuna, Sirte lal Suakhnuna, Puankhai lal Lalnema, Hmundo lal Niliana, Mauzam lal Khawngvunga te belin Lungno, Thingsen leh Muallianpui lal ram chhûngah an lut bawk a, anni hlawhfa-ah te an lo hmang bawka. Chumi hnuah Chakmaho zing atangin Mizoram tlang enkawl theihna nei an lo awm tan ta a ni. Kum 1918 khan Chakma thenkhat chu Pukzing lal khua leh tui angin Marpara velah an awm a, kum 1925 velah Phuldungsei lal ram chhûng Mualvawm leh Aivapui velah chhiah khua ni turin an lut ta bawk.

Kum 1933 khan Lunglei SDO chuan Chakmaho chu ram enkawl tur a pe a, Lukisuri-ah in 15 neiin an khawsa ta a. Hetih lai kum 1934 khan sawrkar chuan Mizoram chhûnga chêngte tân in tinin kum khatah chhiah cheng 2, Non-Lushai tân cheng 5 a tuk a ni.

SAPHOVIN CHAKMA LAKA MIZORAM HUM AN TUM DAN
 Indopui-II chhûng khan Chakma tam tak chu Labour Corps-ah an tang a, Mizoram an rawn lut a, chhuak leh ta lem lovin an awm nghal a. Heng avang leh Mizoram chhûnga hnam dang awm vete avangin Chakmaho thu bikah E.S. Hyde, Asst. Superintendent, Lushai Hills chuan kum March ni 21, 1944 khan thupek a chhuah ta a: thil tul leh pawimawh bikah lo chuan Chakma awm thar turte dilna pawm a nih tawh loh tur thu te; in sa turte tân — Chakma mipa Mizoram-a kum 10 tal awm tawh fapa te tân te, in 15 aia tlem lo niin an khua pawh mel chanve aia thui awh lo tur te, mihring chênna in bakah thlam leh chhek in tih loh in dang sak phal loh te hi a lar zualte a ni.

Lushai Hills Superintendent-in kum 1949-ah Chakma chênna chu endikin hetiang hian thu a ziak a: ‘Chakma leh Tripura (tuikuk a sawina) hming ziakna pass thar siamsak a ni lo. Heng mite hi ram dang mi an ni a, ram dang mi anga chhiah cheng 5/- an pêk loh chhan tur ka hmu lo. Kum 1950-1951-ah chuan chhiah lak tawh tur a ni. March ni 21, 1944-a Mr. Hyde thupek hi Lungleh leh Aijal-a chhuah leh tur a ni. Lal leh C.I. zawng zawngte chu 1944 thupek bawhchhiaa lo lutte report vek tura hrilh tur a ni. Lal tu pawh dân lova an ram chhûnga lut report lo chu na taka hrem tur a ni. Lal zawng zawng dân ang taka hriattir tur a ni’ tih a ni.

Tin, Mizo District Council din a nih hnuah Aizawl D.C K.G.R. Iyer chuan July ni 1, 1954 khan hetiang hian thupek a chhuah leh a: ‘Mizoram lal zawng zawng leh headman zawng zawng hriatah leh an zawm theuh turin Mizoram-ah Chakma leh Tuikukte bawrhsap phalna hmu hmasa lovin luh phal a ni lo tih ka hriattir e. Lal leh headman reng reng chuan an ram chhûnga Chakma leh Tuikuk lo thleng thar hming leh chanchin an rawn report loh chuan a pawi hle ang,’ tiin.

Hemi hnuah Mizoram sawrkar chuan Chakma awmna ram leh hmun hming hlui tak takte chu a thlak a. Chung zinga thenkhatte chu — Demagiri tih chu Tlabung tihin, Samukchhari tih chu Chengkawl lui tihin, Jamirchhari chu Serlui tihin, Baghaichari tih chu Sakei lui tihin, Karnafuli tih chu Tuilianpui tihin. Heng lo pawh a dang eng emaw zat a la awm âwm e.

MIZORAM-A AN INBENGBEL NGHET CHHOH DAN 
India independent hma zawng khan tuna Chakma Autonomous District Council huam chhûngah Mizote vek an la lal a. Tlanglau lal ram an chhuhsak a, Lukisuri-a in 15 nen chauh a nghet lova awm phalna tih mai loh chu Chakma hmuh tur an la awm lo va, Bawm leh Pangho ram a ni thin. Nimahsela, India a independent a, nasa takin Chakma an pung ta. Kum 1901 chhiarpuiah khan Chakma hi mi 198 chiah an awm a, kum 1941-ah mi 5088, independent hnu kum 1951 khan mi 11,435 an awm ta dawrh mai a ni! Kum 1971 khan mi 23,236 awmin kum 1972-a District Council an neih hnua inchhiarpui hmasa ber, 1981 khan mi 39,638 an awm tawh a ni! Hetianga an pun chak chhan chu an inthlahpun chak vang ni lovin Bangladesh atanga lo lut an tam vang niin a rinawm.

Kum 1951 chhiarpuia Chakma an rawn tam chho thar thut hi Mizo lalte bân an nih rahah a puh theih ang. Mizo lalte khan an ram chhûnga chêng Chakmate chu an khuahkhirh a, hmun dang atanga Chakma lo lut zung zung tur an dang a, an ram chin an humhalh tlat avangin kawngro a su hle a. Amaherawhchu, kum 1955, April ni 1-a Mizo lalte bântir an nih tâkah khan khang Chakma hote khan khuahkhirhtu mumal an nei ta lo va, Tlabung chhehvela Palian lal te, Pangho leh Tlanglam lalte tluka Chakma khuahkhirh thei an awm ta si lo va, Zoram huanah ram dang kel an lo lut ta zung zung mai a ni.

Kum 1948-a District Advisory Council inthlanaah Chakmaho hi vote an lo neihtir ta a. Kum 1953-a Mizo District Council-in Mizoram-a chhiah khawnna dân ‘Lushai Hills District (Revenue Assesment) Regulation 1953’ a siam atangin House Tax cheng 2 an pe ve ta a. Kum 1956-ah India Schedule Tribe list-ah an lo lang ta bawk.

Tichuan, Pawi District Council (Lai Autonomous District Council ni ta) a lo pian khan an bial china Chakma awm ringawt hian Council Ministry a khawih danglam phak ta a. Kum 1957, 1962 leh 1970 kum inthlanah Council member pakhat zel an tling a, kum 1964 Pawi-Lakher Regional Council thlanah pakhat an tling bawk. Kum 1972, 1978 leh 1979 inthlannaah te, a hnu lam inthlan thlengin Chakma MLA pahnih zel kan thlang tling chho ta a, tunah chuan Chakma minister kan lo nei ta hial a ni.

CHAKMA AUTOMOUS DISTRICT COUNCIL LO PIAN DAN
Kum 1966-ah Mizoram chu ram buai a ni a. Hetih lai hian Mizoram-ah Chakma mi 20,000 vel zet an awm tawh a, Mizoram mihring awm zat chu mi 3,00,000 vel an ni. Tichuan, Mizo District Council sawrkar chuan Union Territory a dil ta a. Hetih lai hian Pawi-Lakher Regional Council an inthurual thei lo va, a hrang ve vea District Council neih an duh ta a.

Tichuan, kum 1970 September thla khan Mizoram chu Assam ram atanga chhuaka UT hmu tur kan lo nih tak avangin Mizo Union aiawh Chief Executive Member Pu Ch.Chhunga leh Mizoram Congress aiawh Pu Dengthuama te an kal a. Pawi-Lakher Regional Council hotute pawh Pu Manghnuna te, Pu Sapliancheuva te, Pu Sangchhuma te, Pu Mylai Hlychho te, Pu Zakhuma te, Pu Hiato leh Atulchandra (Chakma) te an kal bawk a. Hemi tum hian Pu Ch.Chhunga te’n Chakma District Council hi thlawp lo mah se, an hruaitu Atulchandra-in UT Special Secretary Pimputkara hnenah lehkha ziakin a hranpain District Council a sawi ve ta a. Hei hi a bul tanna chu a ni ta a ni.

Hemi tum hian an lo ngai thutak viau a. Hetih lai hian Chief Commissioner chu S.J. Das a ni. Pu Das-a chuan Pu Ch. Chhunga chu kovin Chakma telin District Council pathum siam an tum thu a lo hrilh a. Tichuan, mipui aiawhte remtihna lak tumin District Council siamna turah hming ziak turin a ti a, ani chuan a ziak duh lo va. Chief Commissioner chuan Saiha lama kala chuta lo awm an hotute hming a ziahtir mai tur thu a sawi a, a kal ta reng bawk a. Chumi hnuah S.J. Das chu Delhi-ah kalin Mizoram UT leh District Council chu a rawn hawn ta a. Chakma District Council lo pian ni hi April ni 2, 1972 a lo ni ta a ni.

Heti khawpa Chakma-in District Council a nei awlsam hi a chhan pakhatah chuan, Mizoram buai lai a ni a, Bangladesh-a awmhmun khuar MNF kalka, Bangladesh ramri dep Chakma chên tamna chu MNF dan leh hrek nana remchang, sawrkar laipui thuhnuaia kun leh Mizote do thei turte vulh len hi an pawi ti lo niin a lang. Chakma-in District Council an neih theih nana Atulchandra hi a khaipa ber a ni a, CEM hmasa ber a ni zui nghe nghe.

Amaherawhchu, tuna kan tar lana hi a pawimawh ber a nih a rinawm loh. Chu aia pawimawh zawk chu Mizoram politics hrichhia tha lo tak, politician-te’n Chakma vote hui an duh vangin he District Council hi a lo piang a ni pakhat âwm e. Hei erawh sawi zui thûk tam lem lo ila.

MIZOTE TAN AN HNAWKSAK EM?
Mi tam tak ngaihdanah chuan, an awm mai mai pawh hi an hnawksak tawh a ni. Mizote zingah Chakma misualho kut tuar hi chhiar tham fe an awm ta a, mi eng emaw zatin nunna hlu tak an chân a, pawngsual hnua rapthlak taka tihhlum te, vuak hlum leh sah hlum te pawh an lo awm tawh a ni.

Tun hma District Council an neih hma hian Borapansuri velah hian an lo inkhuar nghek nghuk tawh a. A vel ram tha tak tak mai, sum hnar tha tak tak mai chu an tichereu va, an tlàn hem hem mai a. Zoram sum hnar tha tak ni thei tur hrang hrangte chu kan ram atangin a nawm a maka a rûka an tawlh chhuah hnuah Bangladesh lamah sumdawn nan an lo hmang tawh thin.

Pu A. Thanglura chuan hemi chungchanga Chakma dinhmun chu a sawifiah thiam hle a, hetiang hian:

“Tuikuk (Riang) hote ai hian Chakma hote hi chu an la huatthlala lehzual a. Bengali ho rau rau zingah pawh a mi sual fawr zual bikte mizia leh nungchangte hi entawn nachang hre phu hlupin rukrukte hi an pawisa miah lo va. Hna pawimawh leh tihtlak fe-ah an ngai a ni ngei tur a ni. Dan naranin, Buddhist sakhaw be mi leh zuitute ni heng hung hlawm mah se, khualzin leh sumdawng vak vel an mi la deuhte chu han suam leh phil mai pawh hnial lo chi an ni bawk a. Chuvangin an tha lo thelh thawlh khawp mai.

“Chutih lai chuan Tuikuk hote pawh hi tawrhhlelhawm tak chu an ni ve tho mai. Ramhuai ni zaw ber awm hian ram fianrialte pawh hi an ngam fu roh mai a. An duhna lai laiah an saihlum tlâk mai mai bawk a. Chuvangin kan ramngaw thate pawh hi tikhawlotu leh tibua zotute pawh an ni ve bawk a ni. Amaherawhchu, kan Zoram suasamna kawngah hi chuan, ‘hringei thawthanga ngaih loh theih loh’ Takam hote zet erawh hi chu an la um pha lo ngiang mai,” tiin.

Pu A. Thanglura thu sawi atang hian kum 1950 chho vel pawhin an lo hnawksak hle tawh tih a lang reng mai a ni. Kum 1972-ah phei chuan District Council an han nei ta a, bial bik neia an han awm hnuah meuh chuan Bangladesh atangin a chelha chelh rual loh an rawn lut chho ta hum hum a. Kum zabi 21 a rawn nih meuh chuan Mizoram mipui 10% an rawn tling chho ta hial a ni.

Tun hnaiah Chakma chungchangah eng eng emaw chanchin a rawn awm chho tan ta a. Chakma hming hi kan hre bel viau a, engtiang takin nge Mizo lalte’n an lo dodal tih te, Mizoram-a an lo luh chhoh dan leh saphovin Chakma lo pung chak lutuk tur laka kan ram lo venhim an tum dan zawng zawngte chu kan hre tam viau lo maithei a. Chuvangin bengvar nan mi thuziak eng emaw zat rinchhanin ka han ziak ve a ni e.

Lehkhabu rawnte:
1. Chakma chanchin by Tribal Research Institute
2. Mizo chanchin (A Short Account & Easy Reference of Mizo History) by B. Lalthangliana
3. Zoram Politics lumlet dan by A. Thanglura
4. Ka ram leh kei by R. Vanlawma
5. Mizo history kamkeuna (An introducton to Mizo History) by RK Lalhluna
6. Ka zin kawng by Ch. Saprawnga
7. Ka nu, an hekna zozai che hi by Laldova
8. Mizo chanchin by Zatluanga
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